Farm security and rural investment act of 2002
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Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. Title I, Subtitles A and B Commodity Programs for Covered Commodities: Sign-up Decisions. 2002 Farm Bill Education Conference Kansas City, Missouri May 20-21, 2002 Jim NovakBrad Lubben Auburn UniversityKansas State University.

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Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002

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Farm security and rural investment act of 2002

Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002

Title I, Subtitles A and B

Commodity Programs for Covered Commodities: Sign-up Decisions

2002 Farm Bill Education Conference

Kansas City, Missouri

May 20-21, 2002

Jim NovakBrad Lubben

Auburn UniversityKansas State University


Commodity program sign up decisions

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Overview

    • Producers must decide whether to sign up for farm program

    • If producers sign up, then they must decide whether to use their “old” or “new” acreage base

    • If producers use their “new” acreage base, then they must decide whether to use their “old” or “new” yields, and if “new”, which method to calculate “new” yields


Commodity program sign up decisions1

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Overview

    • Existing or “old” program acreage base refers to contract acreage used to calculate the 2002 Production Flexibility Contract (PFC) payment under the 1996 Farm Bill

    • Existing or “old” payment yield refers to the payment yield established for the 1995 crop covered under the 1990 Farm Bill

      • Same yield as was used for PFC payments under the 1996 Farm Bill

      • Payment yields under previous farm programs were frozen since 1985 and should be reflective of the 1981-1985 production period


Commodity program sign up decisions2

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Overview

    • Average acreage or “new” acreage refers to acres planted and prevented from planting for each covered commodity for the years 1998 through 2001

    • Average yield or “new” yield refers to the average yield per planted acre for the covered commodity for the years 1998 through 2001, not including years in which when the crop was not planted


Commodity program sign up decisions3

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Overview

    • Regardless of acreage base and yield decisions, producers will need information and documentation for acreage and yield from 1998-2001

      • At a minimum, oilseeds will be added to the “old” base

      • Or, all crops will be updated to the “new” base


Commodity program sign up decisions4

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide whether to participate

    • In 1996, this was the only decision

    • As with the 1996 Farm Bill, participating producers maintain planting flexibility and no set-aside requirements

    • Program participation requirements

      • Conservation compliance

      • Wetlands protection requirements

      • Planting flexibility restrictions regarding production of fruits, vegetables, and wild rice on contract acres

      • Farmland remains in agricultural use

    • Neither the producer nor the land had to previously participate in the farm program to be eligible for sign-up


Commodity program sign up decisions5

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide which acreage base to use

    • Average acreage for each covered commodity for 1998-2001 (“new” base)

      • Including acres planted and prevented planted

      • Average of acreage for all four years, including years in which crop was not planted

        OR…


Commodity program sign up decisions6

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide which acreage base to use

    • Existing program acreage base (“old” base) plus average acreage for each oilseed for 1998-2001

      • Includes acres planted and prevented planted

      • Average of acres for all four years, including years in which crop was not planted


Commodity program sign up decisions7

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide which acreage base to use

    • Existing program acreage base (“old” base) plus average acreage for each oilseed for 1998-2001

      • Total oilseed acres added under this option are limited to the total average acres of the covered commodities for 1998-2001 minus the existing base acreage

        • Additional oilseed acres may be added up to their 1998-2001 average acreage with a one-for-one reduction in another crop’s base acreage

        • On farms where a history of double-cropping is established, the total acreage limit is adjusted to account for the double-cropped acres


Commodity program sign up example base acreage decision 100 acre farm

Existing base

50 acres wheat

30 acres cotton

20 acres with no base

Average acreage for 1998-2001

50 acres corn

50 acres soybeans

Use “new” base

50 acres corn

50 acres soybeans

Use “old” base plus oilseeds

50 acres wheat

30 acres cotton

20 acres soybeans

Additional soybean acres allowed up to 50 with a one-for-one reduction in wheat or cotton base acreage

Commodity Program Sign-up: Example Base Acreage Decision(100 acre farm)


Commodity program sign up decisions8

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide which payment yield to use

    • If producer uses “old” base plus oilseeds, producer must use “old” yields

      • Use existing (“old”) payment yields for all commodities except oilseeds

      • Use “new” yields for oilseeds and adjust them back to “old” yields reflective of 1981-1985


Commodity program sign up decisions9

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Adjusting “new” oilseed yields back to “old” oilseed yields

    • Determine average yield per planted acre for each oilseed for 1998-2001

      • Exclude years in which no acres of the oilseed were planted

      • In years in which the farm yield is less than 75 percent of the county average yield, substitute 75 percent of the county average yield

    • Adjust “new” yield to “old” yield based on ratio of 1981-1985 national average yield to 1998-2001 national average yield for each oilseed


Commodity program sign up example soybean yield calculation

Farm yields (per planted acre)

1998 – 20 bu/ac

1999 – 50 bu/ac

2000 – no planted acres

2001 – 55 bu/ac

County average yields (per planted acre)

1998 – 40 bu/ac

1999 – 41 bu/ac

2000 – 42 bu/ac

2001 – 43 bu/ac

National average yields (per planted acre)

1981-1985 – 29.341 bu/ac

1998-2001 – 37.548 bu/ac

Ratio of 1981-1985 national average yield to 1998-2001 national average yield

29.341/37.548 = 78.14%

Commodity Program Sign-up: Example Soybean Yield Calculation


Commodity program sign up example soybean yield calculation1

Commodity Program Sign-up: Example Soybean Yield Calculation

  • Calculate average farm yield

    1998: higher of 20 bu/ac or 75% of 40 bu/ac = 30 bu/ac

    1999: higher of 50 bu/ac or 75% of 41 bu/ac = 50 bu/ac

    2000: no planted acres

    2001: higher of 55 bu/ac or 75% of 43 bu/ac = 55 bu/ac

    Farm average for 1998-2001 = (30 + 50 + 55)/3 = 45 bu/ac

  • Multiply average farm yield by ratio of national average yield

    45 bu/ac by 78.14% = 35.16 bu/ac


Commodity program sign up decisions10

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide which payment yield to use

    • If producer uses “new” base plus oilseeds, producer has 3 options

      • Use existing payment yields and “old” oilseed yields

        OR

      • Use partially updated yields based on 70 percent of the difference between “old” and “new” yields

        OR

      • Use partially updated yields based on 93.5 percent of “new” yields


Commodity program sign up example soybean yield calculation2

Commodity Program Sign-up: Example Soybean Yield Calculation

  • Decide which payment yield to use

    • Use existing payment yields and “old” oilseed yields

      Payment yield = 35.16 bu/ac


Commodity program sign up example soybean yield calculation3

Commodity Program Sign-up: Example Soybean Yield Calculation

  • Decide which payment yield to use

    • Use partially updated yields based on 70 percent of the difference between “old” and “new” yields

      Payment yield = (new yield – old yield) x 70% + old yield

      Payment yield = (45 – 35.16) x 70% + 35.16 =

      6.89 + 35.16 = 42.05 bu/ac


Commodity program sign up example soybean yield calculation4

Commodity Program Sign-up: Example Soybean Yield Calculation

  • Decide which payment yield to use

    • Use partially updated yields based on 93.5 percent of “new” yields

      Payment yield = new yield x 93.5%

      Payment yield = 45 x 93.5% = 42.08 bu/ac


Commodity program sign up decisions11

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions

  • Decide which payment yield to use

    • Additional considerations

      • “New” yields are calculated for other commodities in the same manner as that for oilseeds

      • For commodities other than oilseeds for which “old” payment yields are unavailable, the Secretary shall establish an appropriate payment yield relative to similar farms

      • Whichever option is used to establish payment yields must be used for all commodities


Commodity program sign up decisions summary

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions - Summary

  • Sign-up Options

    • Use “old” acreage base plus “new” oilseed acreage and use “old” yields

    • Use “new” acreage base and use “old” yields

    • Use “new” acreage base and use partially updated yields based on 70 percent of difference between “old” and “new” yields

    • Use “new” acreage base and use partially updated yields based on 93.5 percent of “new” yields


Commodity program sign up decisions summary1

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions - Summary

  • Making sign-up decisions under risk

    • Do you select the option that provides the largest guaranteed payments (direct payments)?

    • Do you select the option that provides the largest expected payments (direct payments plus counter-cyclical payments)?

    • Do you select the option that minimizes risk?

    • Do you select the option that optimizes the combination of risk and expected payments given the producer’s risk preferences?


Commodity program sign up decisions summary2

Commodity Program Sign-up Decisions - Summary

  • Parting shots and caveats

    • Remember the timing of payments when deciding preferences

    • Remember the impact of payment limits on expected payments

    • Remember that counter-cyclical payments could be reduced if “amber box” payments would exceed WTO limits

    • Finally, the calculations are based on the best current interpretation of the legislation – exact details and numbers are yet to come


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