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Positive Behavior Support: Response to Intervention. University of South Florida 2009. Florida’s PBS Project . Our Mission Increasing the capacity of Florida’s school districts to address problem behavior using positive behavior support. What we do…

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Positive Behavior Support: Response to Intervention

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Positive Behavior Support: Response to Intervention

University of South Florida


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Florida’s PBS Project

  • Our Mission

  • Increasing the capacity of Florida’s school districts to address problem behavior using positive behavior support.

  • What we do…

  • Provide training and technical assistance to districts across the state in the development and implementation of positive behavior supports at all Tiers.

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Time Cost of a Discipline Referral(Averaged to 45 minutes per incident)

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Federal & State Support

  • Intervention of choice in IDEA 2004

  • Supports NCLB

  • Positive Behavior for Effective Schools Act*

  • Florida’s EBD Rule, 2007

  • Florida’s Bullying & Harassment Prevention policy, 2008

  • RtI:http://www.fldoe.org/Schools/florida-reponse-to-intervention.asp

    • Universal (Tier 1) intervention

    • Evidence-based

    • Higher levels of PBS includes Tiers 2 & 3

    • Data-based, structured problem-solving process

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Three-Tiered Model of School Supports & the Problem-solving Process


Tier 3: Comprehensive & IntensiveStudents who need individualized interventions.

Tier 2: Strategic InterventionsStudents who need more support in addition to the core curriculum.

Tier 1: Core CurriculumAll students, including students who require curricular enhancements for acceleration.


Tier 3: Intensive InterventionsStudents who need individualized intervention.

Tier 2: Targeted Group InterventionsStudents who need more support in addition to school-wide positive behavior program.

Tier 1: Universal Interventions All students in all settings.

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Core Principles of PBS

  • Team process

  • Facilitated leadership

  • School and district action planning

  • Data-based decision-making

  • Flexibility with fidelity of implementation

  • Working smarter, not harder

  • Emphasizing prevention, teaching and effective consequences

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Referred to as PBS


Referred to as RtI

PBS is RtI for Behavior

  • 3 tier system established to provide support for students struggling with behavior/academic issues

  • Tier 1 = School-Wide/Universal

  • Tier 2 = Targeted Group/Supplemental

  • Tier 3 = Individual/Intensive

Regardless of student problem, i.e., behavior, academic or combination, schools utilize a problem solving process to assess, intervene, monitor and evaluate interventions across 3 tiers.

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PBS and Response to Intervention

  • Tier 1

  • School-Wide PBS, Classroom PBS

  • Universal screening

  • Integrity of PBS system use

Tier 1:


Classroom PBS

Universal Screening

  • Tier 2

  • Exposure to SW system

  • Social Skills groups

  • Targeted “standard” interventions

  • More frequent progress monitoring

Problem Behavior Continues

Tier 2:



  • Tier 3

  • Individual PBS

  • Specific, individualized interventions based on FBA

  • Frequent progress monitoring

  • Consideration of special education, alternative setting

Tier 3

Individualized, Intensive Support

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Problem Solving Steps

Step 1: Identify the Problem

What’s the problem?

Step 4: Evaluate the Plan

(Response to Intervention)

Step 2: Analyze the Problem

Why is it happening?

Is it working?

Step 3: Develop and Implement the Plan

What do we do about it?

How do we do it?

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Tier 1 Example

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Average Referrals per Day per Month

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Average Referral Per Day Per Month

  • What patterns do you see?

  • What trends are apparent?

  • How do months compare across years?

  • What other info might you want?

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Referrals by Location

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Referrals by Location by Behavior

Hallway / Breezeway

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Referrals by Location by Time

Hallway / Breezeway

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Referrals by Location by Grade

Hallway / Breezeway

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Referrals by Grade from 7-8:30 a.m.

Hallway / Breezeway

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Step 1: Identify the Problem

  • Step 1: What is the Problem?

    • OBSERVED: Fighting in the hall first thing in the morning by 6th and 7th graders

    • EXPECTED: Identify desired behaviors

      Link to school-wide expectations and hallway rules

      Students will treat each other with respect (polite language, no physical interaction, stay to the right of the hallway); be prepared and safe

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Step 2: Analyze the Problem

  • Step 2: Why is the problem happening?

    • EXAMPLE: The problem is occurring because no specific hallway rules, morning/arrival procedures, 6th and 7th graders have not been taught expectations, no rewards, no supervision, additional training.

  • Review/Gather additional information to validate hypothesis or causes

    • Which hallways?

    • Supervision in hallways?

    • Has there been efficient teaching of expectations/rules and procedures?

    • Which students?

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Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan

  • Brainstorm intervention strategies (Link what we’ve learned during Step 2 to what we’re going to do)

  • Link the intervention to the data reviewed/gathered:

    • If _________would occur, then the problem would be reduced.

    • Then, vote on the intervention

  • Brainstorm strategies to overcome top 2 barriers identified

  • Develop a specific plan with delineated responsibilities

  • Include goals and progress monitoring plan

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Brainstorm strategies related to identified causes

Revise hallway rules

Restructure early morning procedures

Teach explicitly to 6th & 7th graders

Increase rewards for expected behaviors

Utilize peer mediation program

Additional training and supervision in hallways

Competition for greatest decrease in ODRs in the hall

Survey students about hallway climate

Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan

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Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan


  • If increased recognition of appropriate hallway behavior would occur, then the problem would be reduced.

  • Vote on strategies

    • Recognize appropriate hallway behavior

  • Establish goals

    • Teachers give out 30 “Stamps”/tokens each week for appropriate hallway behavior

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Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan

  • Establish action steps to implement

    • Review revised hallway procedures plan with staff at staff meeting Tuesday (Principal)

    • Post new procedures and copy each teacher by Monday morning (Mr. First)

    • Create skit with Drama Club to run on new show starting Monday (Mrs. Ashley)

  • Monitor

    • Review data at next meeting

    • Review implementation steps list

    • Check feedback box from staff

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Step 4: Evaluate the PlanIs It Working?

  • Progress Monitoring and Response to Intervention:

  • Examine data and make decisions: Ask…

    Did we meet the goal?

    Did we do what we agreed, the way agreed, for as long as we agreed?

    • Do we need to modify current plan or develop a new plan?

    • Do we need to develop a plan to maintain or fade out the intervention if it was successful?

  • Consider reviewing/revising problem definition and hypotheses if intervention isn’t working with the problem-solving team

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Tier 2

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Identification of Students for Tier 2

ODR data are not sufficient to identify students needing more support at Tier 2

Recommended that multiple sources of data (ODR, referrals, nominations, standardized screeners, etc.) be used to ID students.

FLPBS project can provide information on standardized screeners, efficient nomination processes, and tracking systems for students.

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Tier II: Behavioral Intervention/Support

1 - 5%

Tier II - Assessment

Behavioral Observations

Intervention Data

(peer group comparison)

Tier II - Targeted Interventions

Targeted Group Interventions

Social Skills Training

Small Groups

Tiered Discipline Programs


80 - 90%

Tier I Assessment

Tier I - Core Interventions

10 - 15%

80 - 90%


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Core Components of Tier 2

Continuous availability,

Rapid access (within 72 hr),

Very low effort by teachers,

Consistent with school-wide expectations,

Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school,

Flexible intervention based on assessment

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Core Components of Tier 2

Match between the function of the problem behavior and the intervention,

Adequate resources for implementation (weekly meetings, plus 10 hours a week),

Student chooses to participate, and

Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision-making.

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Secondary Interventions

Behavior Education Program/CICO

Social Skills—Skillstreaming

Problem-Solving, Conflict Resolution

I Can Problem Solve (elementary)

Prepare (secondary)

Anger Management, Violence Prevention

Second Step

Bullying—Steps to Respect

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Training Support at Tier 2

Provided by FLPBS:RtIB Project

Practice with problem-solving process

Practice with data-based decision-making

Evaluation and use of Tier 1 and classroom supports

Establishing a progress monitoring system

Establishing a Tier 2 process at the school


Decision points

Tracking and communication

Specific training on BEP/CICO system

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Progress Monitoring

FLPBS:RtIB Project provides…

Progress monitoring tool for array of Tier 2 interventions,

Decision rules for Tier 2, and

Tracking system for communicating outcomes for all students on Tier 2 support

Practical experience supporting hundreds of schools at Tier 2 implementation

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Adapted from Crone, Horner & Hawken (2004)















Points Possible: __72___

Points Received: __55__

% of Points: __76__

Goal Achieved? Y N

Daily Progress Report

Name: ______Don Kincaid________________ Date: __2/1/08______

Rating Scale:3=Good day2=Mixed day1=Will try harder tomorrow























Teacher Comments: I really like how… ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Parent Signature(s) and Comments: _______________________________________________

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Sample Excel Form for Tier 2Daily Progress Monitoring Report

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Evaluation of Tier 2

Schools can utilize the Benchmarks of Quality for Tier 2 to evaluate implementation fidelity of each Tier 2 intervention in the school

Progress monitoring and tracking system can identify if Tier 2 interventions are being effective

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Tier III of Behavioral Intervention/Support

Tier III: Assessments


Progress Monitoring Graph/RtI

(Eligibility Assessment)

Tier III: Individualized Interventions

Behavior Intervention Plan

Individual CounselingSelf-Monitoring

1 - 5%


Tier II Assessments

Behavioral Observations

Intervention Data

Gap Analysis

Tier IITargeted Interventions

Targeted Group Interventions

Social Skills Training

Small Groups


80 - 90%

Tier I Assessments

Discipline Data (ODR)

Benchmark Assessment

Universal Screening

Tier I Core Interventions

School-wide Discipline Positive Behavior Supports

Whole-class Interventions

10 - 15%

80 - 90%


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Identifying Students at Tier 3

Students for whom secondary supports are not enough (poor response to intervention)

Students with severe and chronic behavior

High ODRs

ESE services or placement

High scores on screeners

NOT just for students who have been identified as ESE eligible.

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Components of Tier 3 Support

Clear FBA and BIP process that meets the needs of all students

Collaborative problem-solving approach

Clear intervention goals that address problem behavior, appropriate behavior and lifestyle issues

A progress monitoring system for each student and all students

Decision points and data-based decisions

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Components of Tier 3 Support

An effective FBA process

Appropriate, multi-component BIPs matched to function

Contextual fit and coaching

Measurements of the fidelity of intervention implementation

Matching complexity of problem to differing level of Tier 3 support

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Resources from FLPBS Project for Tier 3

FLPBS does not provide training to individual schools in Tier 3 because:

Tier 3 supports and systems are generally provided or developed at the district level

Impacting practice of Tier 3 at the school requires impacting the systems of support for Tier 3 at the district level

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District Level Support for Tier 3

FLPBS Project can:

Review practices and products to determine a need

Identify areas of strength or need

Provide evidence-based practices, forms, materials, etc.

Target training and TA to those areas

Consider systems changes that may promote implementation

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Progress Monitoring

FLPBS Project provides…

Progress monitoring tool for array of Tier 3 interventions,

Decision rules for Tier 3,

Fidelity measure (BoQ 3) for Tier 3 supports

Process for review of FBA and BIP products

Tracking system for communicating outcomes for all students on Tier 3 support

Practical experience supporting hundreds of students at Tier 3 implementation

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Tier 1 Training

  • Consists of lecture, video of Florida’s implementing schools, team activities, and action planning

  • FREE OF CHARGE to districts

  • School Administrator required to participate during entire training

  • District Coaches trained to provide additional assistance

  • Ongoing technical assistance provided across year

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Professional Development“Train & Hope”

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Contact Flow Chart

PBS Project Contact

District Coordinator






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Number of Schools Trained(As of December 2008)

  • 6 Pre-K schools

  • 253 Elementary schools

  • 116 Middle schools

  • 45 High schools

  • 49 Alternative/Center schools

  • 32 Other (e.g. K-8)


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State Level Outcomes

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School Level Outcomes

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Elementary School

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Middle School

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Alternative School

No DATA because school does not use ISS.

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High School

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Getting Started…

  • Commitment from District

  • Commitment from School Administrator(s)

  • Acceptance for participation from FLPBS

  • Completed New School Packet prior to determined deadline

  • District determination of funding to support schools

  • Discuss possible TRAINING DATES

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Florida’sPositive Behavior Support Project

  • Contact:

    • Karen Childs, M.A.

  • Phone: (813) 974-7358

  • Fax: (813) 974-6115

  • Email: flpbs@fmhi.usf.edu

  • Website: http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu

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