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Designing a site (1/4) – 1h. First Step. Lazar’s Development Lifecycle. Define the mission & target users. Collect user requirements. Create and Modify Conceptual design. Perform usability testing. Create and modify physical design. Evaluate and improve the website.

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Designing a site (1/4) – 1h

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Designing a site (1/4) – 1h

First Step


Lazar’s Development Lifecycle

Define the

mission &

target users

Collect

user

requirements

Create and

Modify

Conceptual

design

Perform

usability testing

Create and modify

physical design

Evaluate and

improve the website

Implement and

market the website


First step

  • Mission statement

    • what is the purpose of the site ?

  • Target user population

    • who is going to use the site ?

  • Project Brief

    • Another document! (highly readable and concise)

    • How the subject will be approached

    • The scope of the project

    • The intended audience


Mission: Characterising Websites


Navarro and Khan’s Taxonomy of Web Site Missions

Effective Web Design (1998)

Question: is this taxonomy still valid today? What other categorisation can you think of?


Defining the Mission Statement

  • What are the goals of the web site?

    • Inform or educate

    • Entertain

    • Market, sell or persuade

    • Different goals for different users ?

  • What type of interaction with the users does the client want?

    • Buy a product, subscribe to a mailing list, read information, download a patch, play a game etc

  • How will success be measured ?

    • Pages visited, products sold, customer satisfaction etc


Defining the Target User

  • To whom is the web site targeted?

  • Are there different user groups within the target population?

  • Can we develop separate user profiles?

  • Can we contact all these different user groups?


…. need to define ….

  • baseline specification (user)

    • platform, bandwidth, browser version, colour resolution, screen resolution, plug-ins etc

  • technical specifications (development)

    • platform, authoring tools, hardware, format etc

  • Content

    • Who is responsible for it?

    • text, images, dynamic media etc

  • navigation

    • menus, icons, hypertext etc

  • screen layout

    • design guidelines, screen display, colours, fonts etc


…. information required …..

  • Demographic information

    • Age, gender, educational experience etc of users

  • Domain knowledge

    • Previous knowledge and experience of users

  • Computing experience

    • Support and training required in-house

  • Computing environment

    • Hardware, software, connection etc (users and in-house)

  • Content

    • Users needs

  • Benchmarking

    • Exemplars, competition

  • Other considerations

    • Redevelopment: previous data such as usability tests


…. decision time

  • What categories of information need to be collected from the user ?

  • Which data are most important to collect ?

  • What other web sites would be good benchmarks ?


Requirements Capture

  • PACT -

    • People

      • who will use the system

    • Activities

      • what it will be used for

    • Contexts

      • the contexts of the interaction

    • Technologies

      • what is technically/logically feasible


PACT - People

  • Physical Differences

    • Colour blindness

    • Impairment

  • Psychological Differences

    • Spatial ability

    • Experience

  • Usage Differences

    • Secretaries

    • Managers


PACT - Activities

  • Temporal Aspects

    • Speed of response

    • Frequency of Use

  • Cooperation - alone or with others?

  • Complexity

    • Step-by- Step or Browse Around?

  • Safety-Critical - allow recovery from errors

  • Nature and Content (input device, media)


PACT - Contexts

  • Physical Environment

    • Use Outside?

    • Slow internet access?

  • Social Context

    • Sound Permissible?

    • Privacy Necessary?

  • Organisational Context

    • Change power Structure?

    • Deskilling?


PACT - Technologies

  • Input

    • Bar-codes, Touch Screens, Speech?

  • Output

    • Video, Speech, Icons?

  • Communication

    • Bandwidth, Speed, Storage?

  • Content

    • Accurate, Up to Date, Relevant, Well Presented


Requirements Capture

  • CUTE - Constraints, User profiles, Tasks, Environmental factors


CUTE

  • Constraints:

    • Timescale

    • Budget

    • Standards or styles

    • Technical performance criteria

    • Development personnel

    • User training requirements

    • Legal requirements relating to usability or accessibility


CUTE

  • Users:

    • Physical and cognitive needs

    • Domain expertise

    • Education

    • Usage profile

    • Cultural background

    • Computer experience

    • Attitude

    • Work methods


CUTE

  • Tasks:

    • Functional specification

    • User-centred analysis of tasks

      • Their components

      • Sequences

      • typical scenarios

    • Context of work:

      • Work pattern

      • Work group dynamics


CUTE

  • Environment = physical aspects of the context of use:

    • Environmental conditions

    • Siting

    • Response needs

    • Criticality

    • Health and safety issues

    • Desk-bound or mobile

    • Stresses

    • Ergonomic issues


Tools & Techniques

  • Surveys

    • Paper

    • Electronic

  • Interview

    • F2F

    • Telephone

    • Computer Mediated

  • Focus groups

    • F2F

    • Computer Mediated


Data Gathering Methods - Questionnaires

  • Good for answering specific questions

  • Data: Quantitative & qualitative

  • Can reach many people with low resources

  • Must be properly designed

  • Low response rate


Data Gathering Methods - Interviews

  • Good for exploring issues

  • Some quantitative but mostly qualitative data

  • Interviewer can guide interviewee if necessary.

  • Encourages contact between developer and user / client

  • Time consuming.

  • Recording equipment?

  • Artificial environment may intimidate interviewee


Data Gathering Methods - Focus Groups

  • Good for collecting multiple viewpoints

  • Some quantitative but mostly qualitative data

  • Highlights areas of consensus and conflict.

  • Encourages contact between developer and user / client

  • Mix of people: Possibility of dominant / submissive characters.


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