بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم. HOW to use CONSORT. Randomisation. Population. Experimental intervention. Outcome. Sample. Outcome. Control intervention. Time. Randomised, controlled trial. scales and their modifications including:. Jadad Maastricht Delphi List PEDro

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم


How to use consort

HOW to use CONSORT


Randomised controlled trial

Randomisation

Population

Experimental intervention

Outcome

Sample

Outcome

Control intervention

Time

Randomised, controlled trial


Scales and their modifications including

scales and their modifications including:

Jadad

Maastricht

Delphi List

PEDro

Maastricht-Amsterdam List (MAL)

Van Tulder

Bizzini

Chalmers

Reisch

Andrew

Imperiale

Detsky

Cho and Bero

Balas

Sindhu

Downs and Black

Nguyen

Oxford Pain ValidityScale (OPVS)

Arrive´

CONSORT

Yates


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  • http://www.consort-statement.org/


How consort began

How CONSORT began

  • In 1993, 30 experts comprised of medical journal editors, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, and methodologists met in Ottawa, Canada with the aim of developing a new scale to assess the quality of randomized controlled trial (RCT) reports

  • One outcome of the meeting was the Standardized Reporting of Trials (SORT) statement .This statement consisted of a 32-item checklist and flow diagram in which investigators were encouraged to report on the various aspects of how RCTs were conducted.


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  • Concurrently, and independently, another group of experts, the Asilomar Working Group on Recommendations for Reporting of Clinical Trials in the Biomedical Literature, convened in Asilomar (California), USA, were working on a similar mandate

  • At the suggestion of Drummond Rennie, Deputy Editor of JAMA, representatives from both groups met in 1996, in Chicago, USA.. The meeting resulted in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement, which was first published in 1996 


Influence on related reporting guidelines

Influence on related reporting guidelines

  • PRISMA for systematic reviews of randomized trials; MOOSE for systematic reviews of observational studies; STARD for diagnostic accuracy studies; REMARK for tumor marker prognostic studies; TREND for non-randomized evaluations of behavioural and public health interventions; STROBE for observational studies.


Consort stands for

CONSORT……stands for

  • Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, encompasses various initiatives developed by the CONSORT Group to alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).


The main product of consort

The main product of CONSORT

  • The CONSORT Statement comprises a 25-item checklist and a flow diagram, along with some brief descriptive text. The checklist items focus on reporting how the trial was designed, analyzed, and interpreted; the flow diagram displays the progress of all participants through the trial.


Title and abstract

Title and Abstract

  • Item 1a - Identification as a randomised trial in the title.

  • Item 1b - Structured summary of trial design, methods, results, and conclusions

To help ensure that a study is appropriately indexed and easily identified, authors should use the word “randomised” in the title to indicate that the participants were randomly assigned to their comparison groups


Introduction background objectives

Introduction: Background-Objectives

  • Item 2a - Scientific background and explanation of rationale

  • Item 2b - Specific objectives or hypotheses


Method

Method:

  • Trial Design :Item 3a - Description of trial design (such as parallel, factorial) including allocation ratio

  • Changes to trial design: Item 3b - Important changes to methods after trial commencement (such as eligibility criteria), with reasons

  • Participants: Item 4a - Eligibility criteria for participants

  • Study settings: Item 4b- Settings and locations where the data were collected


Interventions

Interventions

  • Item 5 - The interventions for each group with sufficient details to allow replication, including how and when they were actually administered


Outcomes

Outcomes

  • Item 6a - Completely defined pre-specified primary and secondary outcome measures, including how and when they were assessed

  • Changes to outcomes :Item 6b - Any changes to trial outcomes after the trial commenced, with reasons


Sample size

Sample size

  • Item 7a - How sample size was determined

  • Interim analyses and stopping guidelines:Item 7b - When applicable, explanation of any interim analyses and stopping guidelines


Randomization

Randomization:

  • sequence generationItem 8a - Method used to generate the random allocation sequence

  • Randomization: typeItem 8b - Type of randomisation; details of any restriction (such as blocking and block size)


Randomisation allocation concealment mechanism

Randomisation: allocation concealment mechanism

  • Item 9 - Mechanism used to implement the random allocation sequence (such as sequentially numbered containers), describing any steps taken to conceal the sequence until interventions were assigned

  • Item 10 - Who generated the allocation sequence, who enrolled participants, and who assigned participants to interventions


Blinding

Blinding

  • Item 11a - If done, whowas blinded after assignment to interventions (for example, participants, care providers, those assessing outcomes) and how


Blinding1

Blinding

  • Participants

  • Providers

  • Raters/data collectors

  • Data analysts


Blinding2

Blinding

  • The term “blinding” or “masking” refers to withholding information about the assigned interventions from people involved in the trial who may potentially be influenced by this knowledge.

  • Blinding is an important safeguard against bias, particularly when assessing subjective outcomes


Similarity of interventions

Similarity of interventions

  • Item 11b - If relevant, description of the similarity of interventions


Statistical methods

Statistical methods

  • Item 12a - Statistical methods used to compare groups for primary and secondary outcomes

  • Additional analyses:

  • Item 12b - Methods for additional analyses, such as subgroup analyses and adjusted analyses


Participant flow

Participant Flow

  • A diagram is strongly recommended.

  • Item 13a - For each group, the numbers of participants who were randomly assigned, received intended treatment, and were analyzed for the primary outcome


Losses and exclusions

Losses and exclusions

  • Item 13b - For each group, losses and exclusions after randomisation, together with reasons


Recruitment

Recruitment

  • Item 14a - Dates defining the periods of recruitment and follow-up

  • Reason for stopped trial :

  • Item 14b - Why the trial ended or was stopped


Baseline data

Baseline data

  • Item 15 - A table showing baseline demographic and clinical characteristics for each group


Numbers analyzed

Numbers analyzed

  • Item 16 - For each group, number of participants (denominator) included in each analysis and whether the analysis was by original assigned groups


Outcomes and estimation

Outcomes and estimation

  • Item 17a - For each primary and secondary outcome, results for each group, and the estimated effect size and its precision (such as 95% confidence interval)


Binary outcomes

Binary outcomes

  • Item 17b - For binary outcomes, presentation of both absolute and relative effect sizes is recommended


Ancillary analyses

Ancillary analyses

  • Item 18 - Results of any other analyses performed, including subgroup analyses and adjusted analyses, distinguishing pre-specified from exploratory


Harms

Harms

  • Item 19 - All important harms or unintended effects in each group


Limitations

Limitations

  • Item 20 - Trial limitations, addressing sources of potential bias, imprecision, and, if relevant, multiplicity of analyses


Medicine recommends that authors structure the discussion section by presenting

Medicine recommends that authors structure the Discussion section by presenting

  • (1) a brief synopsis of the key findings,

  • (2) consideration of possible mechanisms and explanations,

  • (3) comparison with relevant findings from other published studies


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  • (4) limitations of the present study (and methods used to minimise and compensate for those limitations)

  • (5) a brief section that summarises the clinical and research implications of the work, as appropriate


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  • Although discussion of limitations is frequently omitted from research reports, identification and discussion of the weaknesses of a study have particular importance


Generalisability

Generalisability

  • Item 21 - Generalisability (external validity, applicability) of the trial findings


Appraising applicability

Appraising Applicability

  • Is my patient similar to the study population?

  • Is the treatment feasible in my clinical setting?

    Will potential benefits of treatment outweigh potential harms of treatment for my patient?


Interpretation

Interpretation

  • Item 22 - Interpretation consistent with results, balancing benefits and harms, and considering other relevant evidence


Registration

Registration

  • Item 23 - Registration number and name of trial registry


Protocol

Protocol

  • Item 24 - Where the full trial protocol can be accessed, if available


Funding

Funding

  • Item 25 - Sources of funding and other support (such as supply of drugs), role of funders


2888661

همتم بدرقه راه کن ای طایر قدس

که درازست ره مقصد و من نو سفرم

ای نسیم سحری بندگی من برسان

که فراموش مکن وقت دعای سحرم


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