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Using the Internet to Help People to Act on Intentions: Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring. Thomas Webb University of Sheffield, UK. SYNERGY 2008: How can psychological theory best be used in the development of internet-based interventions?. Intention. Behaviour.

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Using the Internet to Help People to Act on Intentions: Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

Thomas Webb

University of Sheffield, UK

SYNERGY 2008: How can psychological theory best be used in the development of internet-based interventions?


Health behaviour change

Intention Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

Behaviour

Motivational interventions

Volitional interventions

Health Behaviour Change

  • Target motivation or volition?

  • Or both?

    • Milne, S., Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (2002). Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 163-184.


Control theory carver scheier 1982

Monitoring interventions Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

Planning interventions

Environmental restructuring

Control Theory(Carver & Scheier, 1982)

Reference value

Comparator

Input function (perception)

Output function (behaviour)

Impact on environment

Disturbance


Monitoring
Monitoring Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

  • Self-monitoring of behaviour

    • The person is asked to keep a record of specified behavior/s

      • (Abraham & Michie, in press)

  • Self-monitoring of behavioural outcome

    • The person is asked to keep a record of specified measures expected to be influenced by the behaviour change

      • (Abraham & Michie, revised taxonomy)


Cussler et al 2008
Cussler et al. (2008) Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

  • N = 135 women randomly allocated to either internet or self-directed groups

  • Internet group used a website to gain information and complete logs concerning their weight, diet, and exercise progress over a 12 month period

  • Self-directed group had no contact


Cussler et al 20081
Cussler et al. (2008) Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring


Action planning
Action Planning Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

  • Involves detailed planning of what the person will do including a very specific definition of the behaviour, namely both (a) how and at least one of (b) when and (c) where to act

    • (Abraham & Michie, revised taxonomy)

  • Implementation intentions

    • If-then contingent structure linking opportunity with response

    • If opportunity Y arises, then I will perform goal-directed behaviour Z!

    • Effective across a wide-variety of domains

      • (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006)


  • Sniehotta et al 2007
    Sniehotta et al (2007) Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

    • N = 239 participants attended a lecture on oral self-care, completed a baseline questionnaire, received a packet of dental floss, information, and a flossing guide

    • E-mailed link to an online questionnaire that – for one-half of the participants – included a planning intervention

      • I will use dental floss at ____ (WHEN) at or in ____ (WHERE) before/after ____(activity, e.g., washing my face)


    Sniehotta et al 20071
    Sniehotta et al (2007) Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring


    Environmental restructuring
    Environmental Restructuring Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

    • The person is prompted to alter the environment in ways so that it is more supportive of the target behaviour (e.g. altering cues or reinforcers)

      • (Abraham & Michie, revised taxonomy)


    Kosma cardinal mccubbin 2005
    Kosma, Cardinal, & McCubbin (2005) Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

    • N = 151 physically inactive people with a registered disability were randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions

    • Intervention group received 4-week web-based physical activity intervention with a different lesson plan for each week

      • Among other materials, participants received “reminders about the positive societal changes with regards to accessible facilities…”

    • Control group received a ‘thought of the week’ and encouraging messages to maintain interest in the study


    Kosma cardinal mccubbin 20051
    Kosma, Cardinal, & McCubbin (2005) Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring


    For discussion
    For Discussion… Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

    • Do we gain anything from using Control Theory as a framework for behaviour change?

    • Which behaviour change techniques work well in combination?

      • Can Control Theory help to inform this?

    • Which behaviour change techniques work well in isolation?

    • Should people be allowed to make their own plans or do researchers ‘know best’?

    • Should environmental restructuring be an individual or a societal responsibility?


    References
    References Monitoring, Planning and Environmental Restructuring

    Abraham, C. S., & Michie, S. (in press). A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology.

    Abraham, C. S., & Michie, S. (personal communication). A revised taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions.

    Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1982). Control theory: A useful conceptual framework for personality, social, clinical and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 111-135.

    Cussler, E. C., Teixeira, P. J., Going, S. B., Houtkooper, L. B., Metcalfe, L. L., Blew, R. M., Ricketts, J. R., Lohman, J., Stanford, V. A., & Lohman, T. G. (2008). Maintenance of weight loss in overweight middle-aged women through the internet. Obesity, 16, 1052-1060.

    Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-120.

    Kosma, M., Cardinal, B. J., & McCubbin, J. A. (2005). A pilot study of a web-based physical activity motivational program for adults with physical disabilities. Disability Rehabilitation, 27, 1435-1442

    Sniehotta, F. F., Soares, V. A., & Dombrowski, S. U. (2007). Randomized controlled trial of a one-minute intervention changing oral self-care behavior. Journal of Clinical Dentistry, 86, 641-645.


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