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IV. Wastewater Treatment Technologies Topic IV. 5. Ranking and Quality Standards of the Receiving Waters. Necessary Wastewater Treatment Efficiency. Ranking (Categorisation) of the Receiving Waters

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IV. Wastewater Treatment TechnologiesTopic IV. 5. Ranking and Quality Standards of the Receiving Waters. Necessary Wastewater Treatment Efficiency

Ranking (Categorisation) of the Receiving Waters

I. According to the Regulation No 7 / 1986 (old, but still valid) - 3 categories (ranks) depending on the receiving water use

  • I category (rank) -surface waters used for potable water supply

  • II category (rank) -surface waters used for cattle water drinking, fishering, sports and recreation

  • III category (rank) -surface waters used for irrigation

    II. According to the EU standards (and Regulation No? at the new Bulgarian Water Act - 2000) - 5 categories (ranks)


Quality standards of the receiving waters imission or ecological norms
Quality Standards of the Receiving Waters(Imission or Ecological Norms)

According to the Regulation No 7 / 1986 (still valid)

I. Main groups of water quality parameters

  • Group A - general physical and non-organic water quality parameters

  • Group B - general water quality parameters for organic pollutants

  • Group C - general water quality parameters for non-organic pollutants of industrial origin

  • Group D - general water quality parameters for organic pollutants of industrial origin

  • Group E - biological water quality indicators


Suspended solids - SS

II rank - 50 mg/l

III rank - 100 mg/l

BOD5

II rank - 15 mg/l

III rank - 25 mg/l

COD

II rank - 70 mg/l

III rank - 100 mg/l

Ammonium-N

II rank - 2,0 mg/l

III rank - 5,0 mg/l

Nitrates-N

II rank - 10 mg/l

III rank - 20 mg/l

Phosphates-PO4

II rank - 1,0 mg/l

III rank - 2,0 mg/l

Quality Standards of the Receiving Waters(Imission or Ecological Norms)According to the Regulation No 7 / 1986 (still valid)II. Standard values (upper limits) of some important water quality parameters (out of 87)


Quality standards of the wastewater emissions emission norms
Quality Standards of the Wastewater Emissions(Emission Norms)

According to the Regulation No 6 / 2000

(At the new Water Act - 2000)

Particularities:

  • Establishing of upper limits for harmful substances and definite characteristic pollutants in wastewater emissions from municipal WWTP’s and in some kinds of industrial wastewater

  • Introducing additional types of surface waters ranking, depending of their sensitivity to eutrophycation

    • Sensitive zones - with restrictions for nutrients upper limit concentrations

    • Less sensitive zones - without restrictions for nutrients concentrations

  • Establishing of specific requirements for nutrients upper limit concentrations in the receiving waters depending on their sensitivity to eutrophycation


Necessary wastewater treatment efficiency
Necessary Wastewater Treatment Efficiency

Receiving Waters Self Purification

General information:

  • Two types of surface waters pollutants

    • Biodegradable - depleting both by dilution and degradation

    • Biorefractory - depleting only by dilution

  • Biodegradable pollutants concentrations decrease down the stream from the point of introduction, due to the processes of self purification and turbulent mixing in the receiving water

  • Pollutants standard concentration values are controlled at the point of water intake in a distance L, downstream from the point of wastewater emission introduction


Necessary wastewater treatment efficiency1
Necessary Wastewater Treatment Efficiency

General Pollutants Mass Balance

Qwe- wastewater emission discharge, m3/s

Qrw - receiving water discharge, m3/s

Cwe - pollutant concentration in wastewater emission, g/m3

Crw - pollutant concentration in receiving water, g/m3

Clim - pollutant limit concentration in receiving water, g/m3

a - coefficient of mixing (of wastewater and receiving water)

Fsp - factor (function) reflecting receiving water self purification

Fsp= 1 for biorefractory pollutants and when applying Streeter-Phelps

equations


Necessary wastewater treatment efficiency general pollutants mass balance
Necessary Wastewater Treatment EfficiencyGeneral Pollutants Mass Balance

For BOD depletion without considering reaeration:

For oxygen balance according to the Streeter-Phelps equations:

where Lo is obtained by solution of the Streeter-Phelps equations

Necessary Wastewater Treatment Efficiency

 - necessary wastewater treatment efficiency

Ccw - pollutant concentration in the coarse wastewater at the inlet of

the WWTP, g/m3


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