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2. . . . . . B.C.. . B.C.. . B.C.. . . . . ELECTRONIC TREND. COMPUTER TREND . 1642. 1801. 1833. 1800. . . . . 1854. 1890. 1906. 1938. . 1946. . 1947. . 1949. . 1954. . 1957. . 1959. . 1964. . 1970. . 1971. . 1978. . 1985. . 1989. . MATHEMATICAL TREND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mainframe

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Wannachai Wannasawade Department of Computer Education Faculty of Technical Education, KITNB

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Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor System & Design

Wannachai Wannasawade

Department of Computer Education

Faculty of Technical Education, KITNB


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Parallel processor

Artificial intelligence

3-D graphics

Babbage's analytical

machine

Von Neumann's Stored program

Firs turret

data - processing

machine

Pascal's desk

calculator

Abacus

First transistorized

computer

Jacquard's

automatic loom

First electronic

digital computer

Integrated

circuits

Microprocessor invented

B.C.

COMPUTER TREND

ENIAC

IBM 360

microprocessor

32 - bit

1642

1801

1833

1890

1949

1964

B.C.

1959

1985

1947

1906

1938

1971

1800

ELECTRONIC TREND

1989

1954

1970

1978

1957

Battery

1946

Static electricity

1854

Mainframe

processor

1990s

MATHEMATICAL TREND

B.C.

First high - level

language

Microprocessor

16 - bit

Vacuum tube

invented

Transistor

invented

LSI circuits

Number systems

Boolean algebra

Mechanical

Electrical

Microprocessor


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

:

(Abacus)


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1642 Calculating machine :

(desk Calculator) Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1801 Automatic loom :

  • John Jacquard

  • Punched cards (IBM card)


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1833 Analytical engine :

  • CharlesBabbage

  • analyticalengine

  • (Stored-programconcept)


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1854 Boolean algebra :

  • George Boole

  • Boolean algebra

  • Digital Electronics


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1890 Electric tabulating machine :

Herman Hollerith


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1906 Vacuum tube :

  • Lee De Forest

  • Second Millisecond


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1938 Electronic digital computer :

  • John V Atanasoft logic


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1946 The large-scale electronic digital computer :

  • "ENIAC (Electronic Numbering Integrator And Calculating)

  • large-scale electronic digital

  • 18,000

  • 30

  • 1,500

  • 130,000 watt

  • 3 millisecond 1955


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1949 Stored program computer :

"EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)"

John von Neuman stored-program Babbage stored-program . 1949


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1954 Transistorized computer :

  • solid-state John Bardeen, W.H. Barttain W.B. Shockley Bell Laboratories

  • 1947 Transistor

  • 1954 TRADIC (TRAnsistor DIgital Computer)

  • 1960 transistors


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1957 High-level language :

  • 1957 IBM John Backus (Compile) "FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation)

  • 1960 "COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language)"


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1959 Integrated circuit :

transistors N P


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1964 Integrated circuit computer :

7 .. 1964 IBM Integrated circuit Mainframe System/360 : input/output Auxiliary Storage Device


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1970 large-scale integrated circuit (LSI) :

transistors 15,000


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

1971 era of the microprocessor :

  • "Microprocessor 4 bit LSI

  • X-86 X-64 64 bit SLSI (Super Large-ScaleIntegrated circuit)


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor 4 Bit

1971 Intel Marcian E. Hoff Micro-processor 4004 Microprocessor 4 Bit 4 Bit 4,096 45 Microprocessor 4004 Video Games Microprocessor Base Controller


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor 8 Bit

  • 1971 Intel Microprocessor 8 Bit 8008 16K x 8 Bit 48

  • 1973 Intel 8080 Microprocessor 8 Bit 10 8008

  • 1977 Intel 8085 8080 System Control


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

8 Bits

ManufacturerPart Number

FairchildF-8

Intel8080

MOS Technology6502

MotorolaMC6800

National SemiconductorIMP-8

Rockwell InternationalPPS-8


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor 16 Bit

1978 Intel 8086 1 8088 Microprocessor 16 Bit 1MByte 8 Bit 512 word 16 bit 8086 8088 Microprocessor 16 bit 8086 8088 80186 Personal Computer Hard Disk 80286 16MByte 8 MIPS (Millions Instructions Per Second) 16 MHz


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Intel

PartNumberDataBusWidthMemorySize

804882 K internal

805188 K internal

8085A864 K

8086161 M

808881 M

8096168 K internal

80186161 M

8018881 M

802861616 M


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor 32 Bit

Microprocessor 32 bit 33 MHz 80386 66 MHz 80486 80486 Math Coprocessor ( DX ) 54 MIPs Microprocessor Pentium 100 MIPs 64 bit Itanium IA-64


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

?

(Process Data)


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

  • 8 Bits 16 Bits 32 Bits 64 Bits

  • 64Kbyte 1Mbyte 4Gbyte

  • (Fetch/Execute)

  • Hardware


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

4 Bits


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

8 Bits

  • Video Games

  • VGA Card, MODEM


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

System Architecture


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor Intel.

MicroprocessorDataWidth (bits)AddressWidthClock (MHz)

808616205

8088 8205

8018616206

8028616248

80386DX323216

80386SX162416

80386SL162516

80486DX323225

80486SX323220


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

  • RISC (Reduce Instruction Set Computer)

  • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)


Risc vs cisc

RISC vs CISC

CISC

  • Most mainframes and PCs have CISC instruction sets

    • A single instruction can do several actions

  • Intel Pentium chips are CISC

    RISCarchitectures started in the late 80s

  • Workstations, some mainframes, and some PCs

    • Make instruction sets simpler

    • Since a single instruction is simpler, it takes more instructions to do the same thing as a CISC computer can do in 1 instruction, but each individual instruction can be done more quickly

  • PowerPC chips are RISC


Risc vs cisc1

RISC vs CISC

  • One major difference between RISC and CISC is the ease by which a program can be parallelized

    • In a complex instruction set, it might take more than 1 cycle to complete 1 instruction and so a pipeline tends to stall

    • It is easier to execute a set of simple instructions on a pipeline, superscalar or parallel processor

  • In the past, most RISC processors used pipelines and few CISC processors did

    • The Pentium architecture however implements a superscalar pipeline, thus providing great speedup over earlier Intel architectures

  • Today, we find the line between RISC and CISC blurred as both are using features regularly found in the other


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

SISD : Single Instruction Single Data

SIMD: SingleInstructionMultipleData

MISD: MultipleInstructionSingleData

MIMD: MultipleInstructionMultipleData


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

SISD : Single Instruction Single Data

  • Single processing unit receiving a single instruction stream that operates on a single stream of data

  • The control unit emits one instruction that operates on a datum obtained from the memory unit

  • Invented by John von Neumann in the last 1940s. An algorithm that runs on a SISD computer is said sequential (or serial)


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

SIMD : Single Instruction Multiple Data

  • Consist of N identical processorseach with its own local memory where it can store data.

  • All processors work under the control of a single instruction stream issued by a central control unit.

  • The processors operate synchronously: at each step, all processors execute the same instruction on a different data element.


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

SIMD : Single Instruction Multiple Data


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

MISD : Multiple Instruction Single Data

  • N processors, each with its own control unit, share a common memory unit.

  • One data element received from memory is processed by all processors .

  • Each according to the instructions received from its control unit.

  • The processors do different things on the same data.


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

MISD : Multiple Instruction Single Data


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

MIMD: Multiple Instruction Multiple Data

  • Most general and most powerful

  • There are N processors, N streams of instructions and N streams of data.

  • Each processor owns its control unit and its local memory, making them more powerful than those used in SIMD computers.

  • Each processor operates under the control of an instruction stream issued by its control unit.

  • All executing different programs on different data while solving different sub problems of a single problem.


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

MIMD: Multiple Instruction Multiple Data


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microprocessor

Microprocessor 3

1. Micro-controllers

2. Peripheral control processors

3. Microcomputer system


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Micro-controllers

Micro-controllers Single-chip computer CPU, ROM, RAM +5 8051 chip ROM 4K RAM 128 Byte 32


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Peripheral Control Processor

Micro-controllers Peripheral Control Processor I/O Host Processor Terminal


Wannachai wannasawade department of computer education faculty of technical education kitnb

Microcomputer System

Engineering Workstations CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) CAD (Computer Aided Designed) CAE (Computer Aided Engineering)


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