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Intro to Pottery Primitive, Production, Present. Primitive An introduction to pottery and ceramic terms through early pottery methods. Production Making Pottery and selling it for a living. Present Pottery as a art form. Pottery Primitive.

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Intro to pottery primitive production present

Intro to PotteryPrimitive, Production, Present

  • Primitive

    • An introduction to pottery and ceramic terms through early pottery methods.

  • Production

    • Making Pottery and selling it for a living.

  • Present

    • Pottery as a art form.


Pottery primitive

PotteryPrimitive

Pottery: Ware, such as plates, bowls, mugs, pots, vases, molded from moist clay then hardened by heat.


Intro to pottery primitive production present

Early civilizations used pottery as a survival method.

They stored food, water and other goods in the pieces they made.

Pottery……


Primitive pottery examples

Primitive Pottery Examples…


What is clay

What is clay?

  • Is it that red stuff that gets all over my shoes and stains everything?

  • Is it mud?

  • It is play dough, right?


Clay is

Clay is……

  • Al2O3 2SiO2 2H2O

  • Alumina + Silica + Water

  • Aluminum Oxide + Powder Glass+ Water


Potential health hazards with clay

Potential Health Hazards with Clay

  • Clay dries out skins quickly and can lead to cracking and bleeding of the skin over time.

  • Clay contains powdered glass. Breathing clay dust over long periods of time can result in lung complications. (story time)

  • Fired clay edges become very sharp. They can cut skin and fabric and may scratch surfaces.

  • Some clay tools are very sharp and can cut skin.


Properties of clay

Properties of Clay

  • Heat Resistant (resists very high temps.)

    • Unlike wood or metal, clay does not melt at high temperatures.

  • Malleable (very workable when wet)

    • Easily squeezed, pressed or flattened into any shape.

    • You can try it out now!


Properties of clay1

Properties of Clay

  • Versatile (used for many applications)

    • Tableware

    • Hip Replacement

    • Toilets

  • Recyclable

    • Unfired (Bonedry) pieces can be crushed and re-used.


Types of clay

Types of Clay

  • High Fire (2300+ deg)

    • Stoneware (Tiles, bowls)

    • Porcelain (Delicate plates, mugs, bowls)

  • Low Fire (1700-2000 deg)

    • Earthenware (Sculpture, jugs, bowls)

    • Terra Cotta (Flower pots, exterior)


Earthenware

Earthenware

  • Earliest pieces found in Mesopotamia around 5000 B.C.

  • Used by the Egyptians before 2500 B.C.

  • Used in Greece around 1000 B.C.

  • This is some old stuff!


Hand building

Hand building

Using one’s hands and simple hand tools to shape and mold clay into forms.


Pinching

Pinching

The maker uses the palm and fingers to press the clay outward. This is the most simple form of hand building.


Pinching method

Pinching Method


Stages of clay

Stages of Clay

  • Wet

    • Contains water, workable, moldable.

  • Leather Hard

    • Has lost water, firm, slightly workable.

  • Bone Dry

    • Contains no moisture, hard yet brittle, ashy.

  • Fired

    • Hard, solid, non workable.

  • Glazed

    • Clay that has been fired twice and has glazed applied to seal it.


Finishing

Finishing

  • Burnishing

    • Smoothing out the clay by rubbing the surface with a smooth object. (spoon, leather, wooden spoon)

  • Staining

    • Watered down natural materials applied to the clay to add color and create designs. (red iron oxide)


Firing

Firing

  • Bisque Fire

    • The clay pieces are placed into the kiln at the Bone Dry stage. They are heated slowly to a temperature of around 1500 degrees.

    • This hardens the pieces yet they are still porous.

    • Firing slowly reduces the chance of and explosion due to an air pocket, water, or thermal shock.


Electric kiln

Electric Kiln


Firing1

Firing

  • Primitive Pit Fire

    • Ancient cultures (Egyptians, Greeks, Native American Indians) dug pits in the earth and loaded the pieced along with wood, leaves, etc. They would light the materials on fire and hours later the only thing left would be the fired pottery pieces.

    • Many potters still use a kiln similar to the pit kiln. There are many variations that are used for different effects.


Pit kiln history of firing story

Pit Kiln*history of firing story


Www robertcomptonpottery com

www.robertcomptonpottery.com

Pit Fired Pottery Examples


Your first assignment

Your first Assignment

You will create a primitive pot using the

hand-building pinching method.

You will focus on proportion and even thickness for your bowl.


Your first assignment1

Your first Assignment……

  • You will burnish your pot.

    • Burnish: to make shiny by rubbing; smoothing a surface using a tool or one’s hand.

  • You will add family history symbols to decorate your pot.

  • http://surnames.meaning-of-names.com/


The end

The End

Up Next…….Production Pottery


Pottery production

PotteryProduction

Clay Pieces made to sell for a profit.


Production pottery

Production Pottery

  • Ancient Cultures made pottery as a means of storing food and water and preparing meals.

  • Some cultures used pottery as a way to preserve the remains of deceased people.

  • Pottery as and art form and use has been made and sold for many years. As early as the 1600’s cultures were producing and selling pieces at markets and gatherings.


Slab method

Slab Method

  • Slab – a flat piece of clay that has been rolled out evenly. It can be cut, folded or wrapped around a shape.

  • Pieces made with the slab method: plates, mugs, vases, boxes, containers, cups.


What will you do

What will you do?

  • You will produce two identical mugs.

    • The weight, shape, and size should be the same.

    • The designs and finishing can be different.

  • You will be required to calculate the total cost for each mug.

  • You will be required to price and sell your mug for a profit.


The catch

The catch…….

  • All proceeds will be deposited into the Pottery account to pay for the projects that you will make and keep throughout the semester.

  • By doing this, you avoid paying a class fee up front.


Calculating cost

Calculating Cost

  • You must determine how much clay you used.

    • Weight your wet mug (s)

    • Clay averages .30 per pound

  • You must determine how much glazed was used.

    • Estimate how many ounces of glaze you used.

    • Glaze averages .72 per ounce


Calculating cost1

Calculating Cost

  • Electrical Use (Kiln)

    Kilowatts used x Hours used x cents per kw-hr.

    110 kw x 11hr x .10 = 12.10

    Bisque firing + Glaze Firing = Total Firing Cost

    12.10 + 12.10 = 24.20

  • Divide 24.20 by the number of pieces in the kiln to determine individual cost.


Calculating cost2

Calculating Cost

  • Cost Per Piece

    • Clay cost + glaze cost + Kiln cost = Final Cost

  • Profit Margin

  • Selling Price – final cost = Profit margin.

  • Ex. 12.00 – 5.33 = 6.67


What is glaze

What is Glaze?

  • a layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fired to fuse to a ceramic object to color, decorate, strengthen or waterproof it.

  • Adds color

  • Seals Clay

  • Makes it Useable for Food


Pottery present

PotteryPresent

Clay Pieces made as an art form.


Functional versus sculptural

Functional

Having or serving a utilitarian purpose.

Utilitarian – usable; eating, cooking, storage, bookends, candle holder, etc.

Sculptural

Having no specific function other than visual pleasure.

Sculpture is created as a visual art form to appeal to the senses and not necessarily used.

Functional versus Sculptural


Coiling method

Coiling Method

  • The hand building technique where clay is rolled with the hands to create “snake-like” coils. These coils are then attached on top of one another to create a taller piece.

  • Coiling is an advance technique of pinching. They are often used together to create larger works in clay.


Coiling creates texture

Coiling creates Texture

  • Texture

    • The way something feels.

      • Rough, soft, smooth, gritty, bumpy, etc.

    • Texture creates visual interest in clay pieces.

    • Texture enhances the viewers sense of feel.


Coiling rolling

Coiling (rolling)


Coiling even consistency

Coiling (even consistency)


Coiling attaching coils

Coiling (attaching coils)

EACH INDIVIDUAL COIL MUST BE SCORED AND SLIPPED


Coiling smoothing inside

Coiling (smoothing inside)


Coiling leveling the lip

Coiling (leveling the lip)


Coiling finished example

Coiling (finished example)


Coiling techniques

Coiling Techniques

  • Straight / Standard Coil

    • Long snake-like coil.

  • Spiral Coil

    • A coil that has been rolled around itself to create a spiral.

      • Squared Spiral Coil

        • A spiral coil that has been paddled into a square.

      • Triangular Spiral Coil

        • A spiral coil that has been paddled into a triangle.


Coiling techniques1

Coiling Techniques

  • Zig-zag Coil

    • A coil that has been zig-zagged on top of itself.

  • Vertical coil

    • Short coils that are stacked beside each other vertically to create a wall.


Standard coil

Standard Coil


Spiral coil

Spiral Coil


Coiled examples

Coiled Examples


What will you create

What will you create….?

  • A coiled vessel / sculpture of choice.

  • Your piece must contain at least three different coiling techniques (straight, spiral, zigzag, vertical, etc.)

  • Your piece must stand at least 8” when leather hard.


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