Culture and management
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Culture and Management. Chapter 2. Outline. What is culture? Hofstede's model of culture Trompenaars' model of culture. What is Culture?. Pervasive and shared beliefs, norms, values, and symbols that guide everyday life. Cultural norms: both prescribe and proscribe behaviors

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Culture and Management

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Culture and management

Culture and Management

Chapter 2


Outline

Outline

  • What is culture?

  • Hofstede's model of culture

  • Trompenaars' model of culture


What is culture

What is Culture?

  • Pervasive and shared beliefs, norms, values, and symbols that guide everyday life.

  • Cultural norms: both prescribe and proscribe behaviors

    • What we should do and what we cannot do.

  • Cultural values: what is good/beautiful/holy, and what are legitimate goals for life.

  • Cultural folkways: customs with no moral significance


What is culture 2

What is Culture? (2)

  • Cultural beliefs: represent our understandings about what is true.

  • Culture is pervasive in society

    • Affects all aspects of life

    • Not all aspects are observable

  • Culture is learned


Sub cultures and cultural change

Sub-cultures and Cultural Change

  • Groups within a culture may form a sub-culture that varies in some ways from the national culture.

  • Cultures can change gradually over time.

  • People who have worked outside their own country or have friends from other cultures may pick up some attitudes or behaviors from the other culture.


How cultures view each other

How Cultures View Each Other

  • Stereotyping: assumes that all people within one culture behave, believe, feel, and act the same.

  • Ethnocentrism: occurs when people from one culture believe that theirs are the only correct norms, values, and beliefs.

  • Self-reference criterion: the assumption that people in another culture will behave like people in your culture


Culture and ethics

Culture and Ethics

  • Moral universalism: the belief that there are universal standards for right and wrong

  • Cultural relativism: the belief that all cultures, no matter how different, are correct and moral for the people of those cultures.


Hofstede s model of national culture

Hofstede’s Model of National Culture

  • Five dimensions of basic values

    • Power distance

    • Uncertainty avoidance

    • Individualism

    • Masculinity

    • Long-term orientation


Power distance

Power Distance

  • Power distance concerns how cultures deal with inequality and focuses on

    • Norms that tell superiors (e.g., bosses) how much they can determine the behavior of their subordinates

    • Values and beliefs that superiors and subordinates are different kinds of people


Power distance 2

Power Distance (2)

  • High power distance countries have norms, values, and beliefs such as

    • Inequality is fundamentally good

    • Everyone has a place: some are high, some are low

    • Most people should be dependent on a leader

    • The powerful are entitled to privileges

    • The powerful should not hide their power


Exhibit 2 2 managerial implications for power distance

Exhibit 2.2: Managerial Implications for Power Distance


High uncertainty avoidance

High Uncertainty Avoidance

  • Norms, values, and beliefs regarding tolerance for ambiguity

    • Conflict should be avoided

    • Deviant people and ideas should not be tolerated

    • Laws are very important and should be followed

    • Experts and authorities are usually correct

    • Clear rules and procedures are important.

    • Consensus is important


Exhibit 2 3 managerial implications of uncertainty avoidance

Exhibit 2.3: Managerial Implications of Uncertainty Avoidance


Individualism collectivism

Individualism/Collectivism

  • Focus is on the relationship between the individual and the group

  • Countries high on individualism have norms, values, and beliefs such as

    • People are responsible for themselves.

    • Individual achievement is ideal.

    • People need not be emotionally dependent on organizations or groups.


Individualism collectivism1

Individualism/Collectivism

  • Collectivist countries have norms, values, and beliefs such as

    • One’s identity is based on group membership.

    • Group decision making is best.

    • Groups protect individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group.


Exhibit 2 4 managerial implications of individualism collectivism

Exhibit 2.4: Managerial Implications of Individualism/Collectivism


Masculinity

Masculinity

  • Tendency of a culture to support traditional masculine orientation

  • High masculinity countries have beliefs such as

    • Gender roles should be clearly distinguished.

    • Men are assertive and dominant.

    • Machismo/exaggerated maleness in men is good.

    • Men should be decisive.

    • Work takes priority over other duties.

    • Advancement, success, and money are important.


Exhibit 2 5 managerial implications of masculinity

Exhibit 2.5: Managerial Implications of Masculinity


Long term orientation

Long-Term Orientation

  • Belief in substantial savings

  • Willingness to invest

  • Acceptance of slow results

  • Persistence to achieve goals

  • Sensitivity to social relationships

  • Pragmatic adaptation


Exhibit 2 6 managerial implications of long term orientation

Exhibit 2.6: Managerial Implications of Long-term Orientation


Exhibit 2 7 hofstede s classification of countries by clusters

Exhibit 2.7 Hofstede’s Classification of Countries by Clusters


Exhibit 2 7 hofstede s classification of countries by clusters1

Exhibit 2.7 Hofstede’s Classification of Countries by Clusters


Trompenaars dimensions of culture

Trompenaars' Dimensions of Culture

  • Universalism vs. Particularism

  • Neutral vs. Affective

  • Specific vs. Diffuse

  • Achievement vs. Ascription


Exhibit 3 9 universalism vs particularism

Exhibit 3.9Universalism vs. Particularism

Universalism

Particularism


Exhibit 2 11 neutral vs affective exhibit 2 11 in the book is backward

Exhibit 2.11: Neutral vs. AffectiveExhibit 2.11 in the book is backward

Neutral

Affective


Exhibit 2 12 specific vs diffuse

Exhibit 2.12: Specific vs. Diffuse

Specific

Diffuse


Achievement vs ascription exhibit 2 13

Achievement vs. AscriptionExhibit 2.13

Ascription

Achievement


Exhibit 2 16 7d percentile rankings for selected countries

Exhibit 2.16: 7d Percentile Rankings for Selected Countries


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