Causes . There are three contributing factors in the formation of acne:?Overproduction of sebum (oil). .?Irregular shedding of dead skin cells resulting in irritation of the hair follicles of your skin.?Buildup of bacteria.. Risk Factor. ? Hormonal changes in your body can provoke or aggra
1. ACNE Acne develops when sebum and dead skin cells plug the hair follicles.
Acne typically appears on the face, neck, chest, back and shoulders, which are the areas of the skin with the largest number of functional oil glands.
This disease is not restricted to any age group; from teenagers entering puberty to adults in their 20s to 40s can develop acne.
While it’s not a life threatening condition, acne can be upsetting and disfiguring. When severe, acne can lead to serious and permanent scarring.
2. Causes There are three contributing factors in the formation of acne:
?Overproduction of sebum (oil).
?Irregular shedding of dead skin cells resulting in irritation of the hair follicles of your skin.
?Buildup of bacteria.
3. Risk Factor ? Hormonal changes in your body can provoke or aggravate acne in teenagers, both in boys and girls. In women, it shows up two to seven days before their periods, and also in pregnant women.
? Direct skin exposure to greasy or oily substances, or to certain cosmetics.
? Friction or pressure on your skin caused by items such as telephones or cell phones, helmets, tight collars and backpacks.
4. Signs & Symptoms There are two types of acne: Non-inflammatory and Inflammatory
Occurs when the trapped sebum and bacteria partially open to the surface and turn black due to melanin. Blackheads can last for a long time because the contents very slowly drain to the surface.
Occurs when the trapped sebum and bacteria stay below the skin surface. Whiteheads may show up as tiny white spots, or they may be so small that they are invisible to the naked eye.
? A blackhead or whitehead can release its contents to the surface and heal or, the follicle wall can rupture and inflammatory acne can accure. This rupture can be caused by random occurrence, by picking or touching the skin. This is why it is important to leave acne prone skin relatively untouched.
6. Inflammatory acne can fall under four categories: Papule: A papule occurs when there is a break in the follicular wall. White blood cells rush in and the pore becomes inflamed. Pustule: A pustule forms several days later when white blood cells make their way to the surface of the skin. This is what people usually refer to as a "zit" or a "pimple".
7. An inflamed lesion can sometimes completely collapse or explode, severely inflaming the surrounding skin, and sometimes engulfing neighboring follicles. These lesions are called nodules or cysts:
Occurs when a follicle breaks along the bottom, total collapse can occur, causing a large, inflamed bump that can be sore to the touch.
Occurs when a severe inflammatory reaction can result in very large pus filled lesions.
? Topical treatments. Acne lotions may dry up the oil, kill bacteria and promote sloughing of dead skin cells.
? Antibiotics. For moderate to severe acne, prescription oral antibiotics may be needed to reduce bacteria and fight inflammation.
? Oral contraceptives. Including a combination of Ortho-Cyclen and Ortho tri-Cyclen, have been shown to improve acne in women.
? Laser and light therapy. Laser- and light-based therapies reach the deeper layers of skin without harming the skin’s surface.
? Cosmetic procedures. Chemical peels and microdermabrasion may be helpful in controlling acne. Treatment
9. Acne scar treatment:
? Soft tissue fillers. Collagen or fat can be injected under the skin and into scars to fill out or stretch the skin, making the scars less noticeable.
? Dermabrasion. Involves removing the top layer of skin with a rapidly rotating wire brush.Usually reserved for more severe scarring.
? Microdermabrasion. This newer acne scar treatment involves a hand-held device that blows crystals onto skin. These crystals gently polish the skin’s surface.
? Laser, light source and radio frequency treatments. In laser resurfacing, a laser beam destroys the epidermis and heats the dermis. As the wound heals, new skin forms.
? Skin surgery. A minor procedure (punch excision) cuts out individual acne scars. Stitches or a skin graft repairs the hole left at the scar site.
10. ? Wash acne-prone areas twice a day. Washing removes excess oil and dead skin cells.
? Use an over-the-counter acne cream or gel to help dry excess oil. Look for products containing benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid as the active ingredient.
? Avoid heavy foundation makeup. Choose powder cosmetics over cream products because they're less irritating.
? Remove makeup before going to bed. Going to sleep with cosmetics on your skin can clog the pores.
? Wear loose fitting clothing. Tight fitting clothing traps heat and moisture and can irritate your skin.
? Shower after exercising. Oil and sweat on your skin can trap dirt and bacteria.
11. Questions 1) A blackhead is an inflammatory acne.
2) A large pus filled lesion is a Cyst.
3) Soft tissue fillers can be used a a acne scar treatment.
4) One way to prevent acne is :
a) Wear tightly fitted clothing.
b) Wash acne-prone areas twice a day.
c) Go to bed with makeup on.
Answers: 1. False 2. True 3. True 4. B.