Razlika izmedu mobinga i stresa na radnom mjestu

Razlika izmedu mobinga i stresa na radnom mjestu PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 418 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Stres. Stres oznacava vanjsku silu koja djeluje na neki predmet i izaziva napetost (umor) materijala, te strukturalne promjene u predmetu.Stres je sklop emocionalnih i tjelesnih reakcija i pona

Download Presentation

Razlika izmedu mobinga i stresa na radnom mjestu

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1. Razlika izmedu mobinga i stresa na radnom mjestu prim.mr.sc.Elvira Koic, dr.med. specijalist psihijatar subspecijalist socijalne psihijatrije stalni sudski vještak

2. Stres Stres oznacava vanjsku silu koja djeluje na neki predmet i izaziva napetost (umor) materijala, te strukturalne promjene u predmetu. Stres je sklop emocionalnih i tjelesnih reakcija i ponašanja do kojih dolazi kad neki dogadaj procijenimo opasnim i/ili uznemirujucim dogadaj postaje stresan u interakciji sa faktorima licnosti pojedinca i okoline ovisno o karakteristikama pojedinca intenziteta stresa dužine izloženosti

3. Lijecnik Hans Selye - postoje dvije vrste tjelesnih reakcija na štetne podražaje iz okoline 1. specificne reakcije: razlicite s obzirom na osobine podražaja (je li organizam izložen gladi, žedi, toplini, hladnoci, infekciji, ranjavanju itd. 2. nespecificne tjelesne promjene, koje štite organizam od štetnih podražaja ili mu pomažu da im se prilagodi, a nazivamo ih opci adaptacijski sindrom. On se razvija kroz tri faze: 1. faza alarma u kojoj dolazi do mobilizacije organizma 2. faza otpora u kojoj brojne hormonalne i kemijske promjene poticu tjelesne obrambene mehanizme 3. faza iscrpljenja u kojoj je štetno djelovanje okolinskih podražaja sprijeceno ili je organizam odustao od borbe, što dovodi do privremene nemogucnosti organizma da normalno funkcionira. U drasticnim okolnostima u fazi iscrpljenja može doci i do smrti. Teorija životnih promjena (Dohrenwend, 1970.) prema kojoj je stres odgovor na zbivanja koja pojedinac sa svojim sposobnostima prilagodbe ne može svladati. Životni dogadaji razlikuju se s obzirom na to koliko pojedinac mora uložiti napora da bi im se prilagodio, i kolike ce promjene izazvati u njegovom životu. Lazarus (1966.) definira stres kao “stanje koje se javlja u situaciji nesklada izmedu zahtjeva koje okolina postavlja pred pojedinca i njegovih mogucnosti reagiranja na te zahtjeve”, stres je rezultat svjesne procjene pojedinca o tome da je njegov odnos s okolinom poremecen. Bez takve procjene nema stresa, bez obzira na to kakva je objektivna opasnost iz okoline (Lazarus i Folkman, 1974.). Stresor ili izvor stresa može se definirati kao dogadaj ili niz dogadaja za koje procjenjujemo da ugrožavaju naš život i/ili život nama važnih ljudi, materijalna dobra, samopoštovanje i sl., a koji remete (izmijene) uobicajeni, svakodnevni tijek našeg života.

5. Stres vezan uz posao situacija u kojoj cimbenici posla u interakciji sa radnikom mijenjaju njegovo psihološko ili fiziološko stanje do te mjere da odstupa od normalnog funkcioniranja rezultat je neodgovarajucih zahtjeva radne okoline koji su u neskladu sa mogucnostima zaposlenih

6. Empatijski umor empatija - precizno suosjecajno razumijevanje svijeta druge osobe videnog iznutra nezadovoljstvo radnom ulogom, kao i neuspješnost distanciranja od emocionalnih i kognitivnih sadržaja koji iznosi druga osoba vodi empatijskom stresu i ukoliko on potraje duže javlja se empatijski umor

7. Burn out – izgaranje na poslu je progresivni gubitak idealizma, energije i smislenosti vlastitog rada kao rezultat frustracija i stresa na poslu. Izgaranje na poslu nije isto što i umor. Umor ne ukljucuje promjene stavova prema poslu i ponašanje prema klijentima.

8. Nasilje na poslu Nasilje na poslu je svaki incident u kojem je osoba zlostavljana, napadnuta,ili kojoj se prijeti na poslu – od osoba izvan radne organizacije i koji ugrožavaju njenu sigurnost, zdravlje, dobro osjecanje ili radne performance Nasilni mogu biti npr. roditelji, posjetitelji, i uljezi – nezvani gosti Nasilnost ne mora biti fizicka – može biti i “necivilizirano ponašanje” U procesu rada, visoko rizicne aktivnosti za nasilje su: Rad s maloljetnicima (npr. starateljstvo) Radnik koji radi sam Rad do kasnih sati Odlaženje u kucne posjete (ili rad kod kuce) Rad s osobama s posebnim potrebama Osobe u sektoru edukacije reprezentiraju “autoritet” ili “sustav” “ Outside generally means non-workers 4 % of EU workers report that they have been victims of violence. What is violence at work? Violence at work is any incident where a person is abused, threatened, or assaulted at their work, and which endangers their safety, health, well-being, or work performance. It covers insults, threats, or physical or psychological aggression exerted by people from outside the organisation against a person at work. There may be a racial or sexual dimension to the violence. Violence to staff is an occupational safety and health issue and should be dealt with at the organisational level. It is not an individual’s problem. An act of violence generally arises in a situation where there is very high or suppressed tension or pressure and where personal matters are at stake. Conflict that has not been resolved appropriately can escalate to violence. Workers in the education sector can find themselves victims of violence because aggressors see them as “representatives” of the institution or system. Pupils, ex-pupils, parents, visitors, or intruders might initiate violence against staff in the education sector. It is not only teachers who are suffering violence at work, but also teaching assistants, maintenance staff, cleaners, cooks, secretaries, and other support personnel. What activities put staff at particular risk of violence? Workers are more at risk to violence when their jobs involve: Dealing directly with pupils and/or their guardians, Working late or alone, Making off-site or home visits, or Working with children with special needs. What can be done to reduce the risk of violence to staff? Risks should be identified before work begins – vulnerabilities should be assessed and appropriate measures implemented for their management based on available good practice information. Relevant enforcing authorities should be consulted where necessary. Staff should be informed of possible risks and trained appropriately. The following is a question list to help identify areas where action can be taken to reduce the risk of violence to staff. Environmental design Can visibility and lighting be improved where there is a risk of violence? Can access to the workplace be better controlled, and visibility of entrances improved to allow checks of visitors? Can tools, implements, equipment and furniture that could be used as weapons be replaced? Can physical security measures be improved (e.g. alarms)? Can a positive physical environment be provided (e.g. colours, climate control)? Administrative Controls Can the anti-violence policy be improved and better displayed? Are staff, parents, and students informed of their rights and responsibilities? Is there a safety committee in existence that can consider the issue of violence? Are there suitable procedures in place for when an incident occurs, and when were they last reviewed? Is the record keeping process adequate, and are records reviewed to identify patterns or risks? Can communication on the issue of violence between workers and management be improved? Is there suitable coverage of the issue of violence in the risk assessment? Have safer work practices been adopted (e.g. escorting co-workers, late-night working, supervision of pupils by two members of staff where possible)? Are staffing levels sufficient to ensure the safety of staff? Can staff cooperate to develop their own working methods? Are support structures (e.g. counselling services) in place? How are visitors supervised on the school premises? Behavioural strategies Are employees trained in non-violent response and conflict resolution? Is there training on the recognition of the early signs and potential for acts of violence? Is there provision of educational psychological services for advice and counselling? Are students and parents involved in developing a zero-tolerance policy to violence, discriminatory language and behaviour, and bullying and harassment? Is a sense of community and cooperation encouraged to develop? Are positive attitudes, tolerance, and respect to others encouraged? Is good practice information disseminated? Awareness raising and partnerships Are the enforcing authorities involved in relevant awareness raising programmes? Is there cooperation between school staff, governors, parents, students, enforcing authorities, and trade unions? What should be done if a violent incident occurs? It is important to have well-known procedures to be followed in the case of any violent incident with the purpose of preventing further harm to the victim and limiting the damage suffered. In this framework, it is important that: The person who has been a victim of violence, or witnessed an act of violence, is not left alone in the hours following the events; Senior management should become involved, be sympathetic, and support the victim; Psychological support is provided to the victim both immediately and later on in the event of post-traumatic stress; The victim with support for administrative and legal procedures (e.g. how to report the incident); Inform other workers; Risk assessments are reviewed to identify what additional measures are necessary. What are the consequences of violence? Violence in education affects not only the direct victims, but also other individuals who share the same environment (staff, children and young adults). The reaction of people, whether victims or observers, to acts of violence can depend on their personality, learned coping strategies, the physical environment, and the organisational norms and rules. Immediate responses can be passive (accepting or avoiding) or active (negotiation, physically defending oneself). Consequences of acts of violence for the individual include: Physical harm Stress Emotional trauma Feelings of powerlessness Demotivation Consequences for the employer / organisation include: Higher staff turnover, Increased absenteeism and sickness absence Higher insurance costs. Outside generally means non-workers 4 % of EU workers report that they have been victims of violence. What is violence at work? Violence at work is any incident where a person is abused, threatened, or assaulted at their work, and which endangers their safety, health, well-being, or work performance. It covers insults, threats, or physical or psychological aggression exerted by people from outside the organisation against a person at work. There may be a racial or sexual dimension to the violence. Violence to staff is an occupational safety and health issue and should be dealt with at the organisational level. It is not an individual’s problem. An act of violence generally arises in a situation where there is very high or suppressed tension or pressure and where personal matters are at stake. Conflict that has not been resolved appropriately can escalate to violence. Workers in the education sector can find themselves victims of violence because aggressors see them as “representatives” of the institution or system. Pupils, ex-pupils, parents, visitors, or intruders might initiate violence against staff in the education sector. It is not only teachers who are suffering violence at work, but also teaching assistants, maintenance staff, cleaners, cooks, secretaries, and other support personnel. What activities put staff at particular risk of violence? Workers are more at risk to violence when their jobs involve: Dealing directly with pupils and/or their guardians, Working late or alone, Making off-site or home visits, or Working with children with special needs. What can be done to reduce the risk of violence to staff? Risks should be identified before work begins – vulnerabilities should be assessed and appropriate measures implemented for their management based on available good practice information. Relevant enforcing authorities should be consulted where necessary. Staff should be informed of possible risks and trained appropriately. The following is a question list to help identify areas where action can be taken to reduce the risk of violence to staff. Environmental design Can visibility and lighting be improved where there is a risk of violence? Can access to the workplace be better controlled, and visibility of entrances improved to allow checks of visitors? Can tools, implements, equipment and furniture that could be used as weapons be replaced? Can physical security measures be improved (e.g. alarms)? Can a positive physical environment be provided (e.g. colours, climate control)? Administrative Controls Can the anti-violence policy be improved and better displayed? Are staff, parents, and students informed of their rights and responsibilities? Is there a safety committee in existence that can consider the issue of violence? Are there suitable procedures in place for when an incident occurs, and when were they last reviewed? Is the record keeping process adequate, and are records reviewed to identify patterns or risks? Can communication on the issue of violence between workers and management be improved? Is there suitable coverage of the issue of violence in the risk assessment? Have safer work practices been adopted (e.g. escorting co-workers, late-night working, supervision of pupils by two members of staff where possible)? Are staffing levels sufficient to ensure the safety of staff? Can staff cooperate to develop their own working methods? Are support structures (e.g. counselling services) in place? How are visitors supervised on the school premises? Behavioural strategies Are employees trained in non-violent response and conflict resolution? Is there training on the recognition of the early signs and potential for acts of violence? Is there provision of educational psychological services for advice and counselling? Are students and parents involved in developing a zero-tolerance policy to violence, discriminatory language and behaviour, and bullying and harassment? Is a sense of community and cooperation encouraged to develop? Are positive attitudes, tolerance, and respect to others encouraged? Is good practice information disseminated? Awareness raising and partnerships Are the enforcing authorities involved in relevant awareness raising programmes? Is there cooperation between school staff, governors, parents, students, enforcing authorities, and trade unions? What should be done if a violent incident occurs? It is important to have well-known procedures to be followed in the case of any violent incident with the purpose of preventing further harm to the victim and limiting the damage suffered. In this framework, it is important that: The person who has been a victim of violence, or witnessed an act of violence, is not left alone in the hours following the events; Senior management should become involved, be sympathetic, and support the victim; Psychological support is provided to the victim both immediately and later on in the event of post-traumatic stress; The victim with support for administrative and legal procedures (e.g. how to report the incident); Inform other workers; Risk assessments are reviewed to identify what additional measures are necessary. What are the consequences of violence? Violence in education affects not only the direct victims, but also other individuals who share the same environment (staff, children and young adults). The reaction of people, whether victims or observers, to acts of violence can depend on their personality, learned coping strategies, the physical environment, and the organisational norms and rules. Immediate responses can be passive (accepting or avoiding) or active (negotiation, physically defending oneself). Consequences of acts of violence for the individual include: Physical harm Stress Emotional trauma Feelings of powerlessness Demotivation Consequences for the employer / organisation include: Higher staff turnover, Increased absenteeism and sickness absence Higher insurance costs.

9. Rizik od pojave nasilja je veci u nekim profesijama. zatvorski cuvari i policajci. No, ima ga i u poslovima koji su tradicionalno ženski, jer su žene cešce zaposlene u brojnim sektorima zapravo vrlo visokog rizika, npr. brojaci novca, blagajnice, edukacija, njega, rad s duševnim bolesnicima, s potencijalno opasnim osobama, npr. u barovima, cesto žene rade same (na kioscima, cuvaju djecu i starce, taksi vozaci), inspektori su npr. u policiji, za karte u tramvajima, volontiraju u neprofitnim dobrotvornim organizacijama….. A za mobing su posebno rizicne skupine žena višeg materijalnog statusa . I samohrane majke

10. MOBING eng. to mob = prostacki napasti, nasrnuti “emocionalno silovanje” engl. mob =svjetina, masa, mafija, banda, fukara ... Mobbing – radna mjesta Bullying -škole psihološki teror na radnom mjestu neprijateljsko ponašanje na poslu poslovna trauma psihološka agresija emocionalno nasilje ili zlostavljanje na radnom mjestu

11. Mobing je kompleksan fenomen i EKSTREMNI OBLIK STRESA NA RADNOM MJESTU Obilježja pocinitelja – narcisticki, asocijalni tip poremecaja licnosti Obilježja žrtve - sposobnosti, znanja, vještine, iskustvo, uvjerenja, temperament, osobnost, stavovi, motivacija…emocionalna i socijalna inteligencija… Situacijski i organizacijski cimbenici – uvjeti rada, okolina, mirisi, boje, buka, svjetlo…oprema…broj izvršitelja…manjak strucnih kadrova… normativi, povecanje zahtjeva, socijalne i pravne norme, stilovi vodenja ili upravljanja, needucirani rukovoditelji, …manjkavosti u organizaciji rada, Nitko ne može zlostavljati – nitko ne može biti zlostavljan. Mobing kao dio taktike sustava korupcije? Interaktivni dogadaji – timski rad, emocionalni, konkurencija, frustracije, agresija, loše komunikacije….kultura srama i posramljivanja, zavjeti šutnje, klima straha, prihvacanje neadekvatnog ponašanja, slab moral i motivacija djelatnika Nedostatak proaktivnih ciljeva

12. Traumatski dogadaji su oni koji mogu izazvati PTSP – posttraumatski stresni poremecaj a ukljucuju smrt ili ranjavanje ili prijetnju po vlastiti ili tudi tjelesni integritet, te nakon kojih se javlja intenzivan strah, bespomocnost ili užas. Kod mobinga - PTED – posttraumatski sindrom ogorcenosti (embitterment disorder) Primjeri takvih dogadaja su borbena iskustva, tjelesno ili seksualno nasilje, prirodne katastrofe, teške automobilske nesrece koje je osoba doživjela, pogled na druge osobe koje su povrijedene ili ubijene u nesreci ili nasilnom cinu, kao i nazocnost takvim dogadajima ili pak saznavanje za teške dogadaje koje su proživjele pojedincu bliske osobe (smrt, ozljeda, nasilje, bolest). Traumatski dogadaj se razlikuje od stresnoga, jer ce zbog svog intenziteta i vrste dovesti do patnje vecine ljudi, neovisno o tome u kakvom su psihofizickom stanju bili prije takvog dogadaja i bez obzira na raspoložive nacine suocavanja. Reakcije na traumatsko iskustvo smatraju se neizbježnima i univerzalnima, tj. opci oblik posttraumatskih reakcija je slican kod svih ljudi.

13. Zdravstvene posljedice Fizicka šteta za djelatnika ili emocionalne traume Ekstremni negativni stres vezan uz posao Osjecaj bespomocnosti i demotivacije dovode do bolovanja (apsentizma) napuštanja radnog mjesta ili dobivanja otkaza (zbog stecene nesposobnosti npr.) Istraživanja u Njemackoj pokazuju da su troškovi lijecenja kao posljedica mobinga oko 15 milijardi Eura godišnje (Wolmerath, 2000).

14. tjelesni poremecaji - kronicni umor, probavne smetnje, prekomjerna tjelesna težina ili mršavljenje, nesanica, razliciti bolni sindromi, smanjen imunitet, povecana potreba za alkoholom, sedativima, cigaretama emocionalni poremecaji – depresija, burn-out sindrom i karoshi, emocionalna praznina, osjecaj gubitka životnog smisla, anksioznost, gubitak motivacije i entuzijazma, apatija ili hipomanija, poremecaj prilagodbe, kronicni posttraumatski stresni poremecaj (PTSP) bihevioralni simptomi – iritabilnost, projektivnost, nekriticno rizicno ponašanje, gubitak koncentracije, zaboravnost, eksplozivnost, grubost, pretjerana osjetljivost na vanjske stimuluse, bezosjecajnost, rigidnost, stalna okupiranost poslom obiteljski problemi (razvod braka, psihicki i poremecaji ponašanja kod djece – nasilnost, zlostavljanje u školi…) suicid žrtve

15. Poduzeca i zaposlenici trpe ozbiljne gubitke zbog mobinga.

16. Ako se ometa napredovanje djelatnika –poduzece sigurno gubi buducnost

17. Moguce tužbe, sudski postupci i odštetni zahtjevi usmjereni su na pojedinca, ali primarno ipak - na poslodavca Stvara se negativna slika o poduzecu ili institituciji

18. smanjuje se ucinkovitost (prezentizam) - i sigurno gubi sadašnjost

19. Zbog apsentizma (odsustva s posla, bolovanja ili drugih razloga) postoji potreba za internim premještanjima novim namještenjima do zatvaranja radnih mjesta - i sigurno se gube vrijeme i sredstva

20. Zašto mobing? Svrha mobinga je ugrožavanje integriteta, ugleda i dostojanstva, tj. ponižavanje, sve do eliminacije suradnika sa radnog mjesta U SVIM SMJEROVIMA ODNOSA

21. U kojim se radnim organizacijama dogada mobing ? najcešce u loše organiziranim poduzecima i u slucajevima bespomocnog, ne-educiranog ili nezainteresiranog menadžmenta   Npr. “divide et impera” - ne važi više jer upravljanje nije VLADANJE

22. Na žalost….. Zlostavljacima se lako pridružuju slabi u strahu da i sami ne postanu žrtve.

23. Suocavanje sa stresom je odgovor na stresnu situaciju koji pomaže uspostavljanju psihosocijalne prilagodbe. Osoba ce nastojati svladati, podnijeti ili smanjiti zahtjeve koje situacija postavlja. Suocavanje usmjereno na problem ukljucuje djelovane na situaciju, tj. na sam stresor. Suocavanje usmjereno na emocije ima funkciju lakšeg podnošenja emotivnog uzbudenja izazvanog stresnom situacijom. Reakcije do kojih dolazi u povodu nekog stresnog dogadaja mogu se svesti na tri osnovna oblika (Krizmanic, 1991.): 1. toleriranje ili podnošenje djelovanja stresora i stanja stresa = prihvacanje situacije kao takve. 2. kontroliranje, tj. djelovanje na stresor ili simptome stresa = a) povecana psihofizicka aktivacija i traženje novih informacija b) psihofizicka sinkronizacija, tj. usmjeravanje svih postojecih snaga na savladavanje stresa. 3. rezignacija, tj. odustajanje od pokušaja da se situacija svlada = ako osoba smatra da ne može svladati zahtjeve situacije u kojoj se nalazi.

25. Komunikacija Red dobrog

26. Svatko treba razviti svoj osobni anti-stresni program Dobro je trenirati razlicite vještine kako bi se transformiralo fizicko zdravlje i dobrobit Negativne misli koje se vrte oko situacije mobinga, treba preuokviriti, npr. "nisu oni povlašteni, nego slabi" Znajte da niste sami. Naucite kako da se okružite podržavajucim timom. Usredotocite se na pozitivne aspekte svog života, prijatelje, obitelj… Zaustavite vlak negativnosti i mrtvila tkao da se možete vratiti uživanju u životu. Poboljšati samopouzdanje Komunikacijske i poslovne vještine, a tako i poštovanje na radnom mjestu. Upregnuti snagu ocekivanja i namjere tako da stvorite radno okruženje koje želite. Napravite tri dobre odluke i osjecajte se sigurni kamo idete. Dobro procijeniti je li vrijeme za baciti rucnik i prijeci na vece i bolje stvari , tj. vrijedi li se boriti, ili moramo li to uopce?

  • Login