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Physical Transmission Media. 8. Objectives. In this chapter, you will learn to: Characteristics of wireline transmission Properties and uses of coaxial cable Properties and uses of different types of twisted-pair wire Characteristics of lightwave transmission

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physical transmission media

Physical Transmission Media

8

Modified by: Brierley

objectives
Objectives

In this chapter, you will learn to:

  • Characteristics of wireline transmission
  • Properties and uses of coaxial cable
  • Properties and uses of different types of twisted-pair wire
  • Characteristics of lightwave transmission
  • Properties and uses of fiber optic cable
  • Factors to consider when selecting a telecommunications medium
  • Cabling standards
  • Installing wire and fiber optic cabling
  • Testing continuity and performance on physical transmission media

Modified by: Brierley

characteristics of wireline transmission
Characteristics of Wireline Transmission
  • Impedance: expressed in Ohms, is the combined effect of a circuit’s inductance and capacitance.
  • Propagation Delay and Latency: the difference in time between a data packet’s transmission and its reception over a specific route.
  • Distortion: the unintended and undesirable modification of at least one signal component, which makes the signal different from how it was originally transmitted.
  • Noise: any unwanted interference from external sources.

Modified by: Brierley

crosstalk
Crosstalk

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impulse noise
Impulse Noise

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thermal noise
Thermal Noise

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coaxial cable
Coaxial Cable

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non twisted wire
Non-twisted Wire

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level 1 terminations
Level 1 Terminations

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twisted pair tp
Twisted Pair (TP)

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shielded twisted pair stp
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

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unshielded twisted pair utp
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

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category 5 cat5
Category 5 (CAT5)

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category 3 cat3
Category 3 (CAT3)

You describe and draw

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fiber optic cable
Fiber Optic Cable

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fiber optic cable1
Fiber Optic Cable

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popular uses for fiber optic cable
Popular Uses for Fiber Optic Cable
  • Includes connecting:
    • Regional and local cable TV facilities
    • Internet NAPs with other large telecommunications exchange point
    • Central offices with other central offices
    • Main feeders with central offices
    • A telecommunication’s network with private LANs
    • A telecommunication’s network with private switching systems, such as PBX

Modified by: Brierley

selecting appropriate media
Selecting Appropriate Media
  • When selecting telecommunications media consider:
    • Existing infrastructure
    • Throughput potential
    • Cost of installation
    • Noise immunity
    • Security
    • Size and scalability

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comparison of physical media
Comparison of Physical Media

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comparison of physical media1
Comparison of Physical Media

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structured cabling
Structured Cabling

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backbone wiring
Backbone Wiring

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telecommunications closet
Telecommunications Closet

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telecommunications closet1
Telecommunications Closet

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horizontal wiring
Horizontal Wiring

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work area
Work Area

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work area1
Work Area

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installing utp
Installing UTP

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crossover cable
Crossover Cable

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installation tips for cat5 utp
Installation Tips for CAT5 UTP
  • Do not untwist twisted-pair cables more than one-half inch before inserting them into the punch-down block or connector.
  • Pay attention to the bend radius limitations for the type of cable you are installing.
  • Test each segment of cabling as you install it with a cable tester.
  • Use only cable ties to cinch groups of cables together

Modified by: Brierley

installation tips for cat5 utp1
Installation Tips for CAT5 UTP
  • When pulling cable, do not exert more than 25 pounds of pressure on the cable.
  • Avoid laying cable across the floor where it might sustain damage from rolling chairs or foot traffic.
  • Install cable at least three feet away from fluorescent lights or other sources of EMI.
  • Always leave slack in cable runs.

Modified by: Brierley

installing fiber
Installing Fiber
  • Splice -the physical joining of two facing and aligned pieces of wire or fiber.
  • Mechanical splicing - the two ends of a fiber optic cable are fixed in position within a tube so that they form one continuous communications channel.
  • Fusion splicing - a connection between fibers is accomplished through the application of heat and the resulting melting and fusion of two fiber strands.

Modified by: Brierley

mechanical and fusion splicing
Mechanical and Fusion Splicing

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st and sc fiber connectors
ST and SC Fiber Connectors

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cable installation tips for fiber optic cable
Cable Installation Tips for Fiber Optic Cable
  • When pulling fiber optic cable, do not exert pressure on the cable.
  • Fiber optic cable should be installed within a conduit whenever you are concerned about the potential for environmental damage.
  • Do not exceed the minimum bend radius.

Modified by: Brierley

troubleshooting connectivity problems
Troubleshooting Connectivity Problems
  • Identify the symptoms
  • Identify the scope of the problem
  • Establish what has changed on the network
  • Determine the most probable cause of the problem
  • Implement a solution
  • Test the solution
  • Recognize the potential effects of the solution
  • Document the solution

Modified by: Brierley

troubleshooting tools
Troubleshooting Tools
  • Crossover Cable - allows you to quickly and easily verify that a node’s network adapter is transmitting and receiving signals properly.
  • Tone Generator - a small electronic device that issues a signal on a wire pair.
  • Tone Locator - a type of amplifier that can detect the inductive energy emitted by the tone (current) on a wire.

Modified by: Brierley

tone generator and tone locator
Tone Generator and Tone Locator

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performance testers
Performance Testers
  • Provides the following functions:
    • Measures the length of each wire pair
    • Ensures that the cable does not exceed recommended maximum lengths
    • Measures the distance from the tester to a cable fault
    • Measures attenuation along a cable
    • Measures crosstalk between wires

Modified by: Brierley

performance testers1
Performance Testers

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fiber optic cable testers
Fiber Optic Cable Testers

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time domain reflectometers
Time Domain Reflectometers

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telephone test set
Telephone Test Set

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summary
Summary
  • Characteristics that affect wireline transmission include impedance changes, latency, delay distortion, and noise.
  • Traditional four-pair, non-twisted copper telephone wiring is known as Level 1 cable or quad wire.
  • Category (CAT3) UTP cable is the minimum grade of unshielded twisted-pair cabling for use in telephone systems.
  • To identify the source of cabling infrastructure problems, follow a logical troubleshooting methodology and have the appropriate testing tools handy.

Modified by: Brierley

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