Physical transmission media
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Physical Transmission Media. 8. Objectives. In this chapter, you will learn to: Characteristics of wireline transmission Properties and uses of coaxial cable Properties and uses of different types of twisted-pair wire Characteristics of lightwave transmission

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Physical Transmission Media

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Physical transmission media

Physical Transmission Media

8

Modified by: Brierley


Objectives

Objectives

In this chapter, you will learn to:

  • Characteristics of wireline transmission

  • Properties and uses of coaxial cable

  • Properties and uses of different types of twisted-pair wire

  • Characteristics of lightwave transmission

  • Properties and uses of fiber optic cable

  • Factors to consider when selecting a telecommunications medium

  • Cabling standards

  • Installing wire and fiber optic cabling

  • Testing continuity and performance on physical transmission media

Modified by: Brierley


Characteristics of wireline transmission

Characteristics of Wireline Transmission

  • Impedance: expressed in Ohms, is the combined effect of a circuit’s inductance and capacitance.

  • Propagation Delay and Latency: the difference in time between a data packet’s transmission and its reception over a specific route.

  • Distortion: the unintended and undesirable modification of at least one signal component, which makes the signal different from how it was originally transmitted.

  • Noise: any unwanted interference from external sources.

Modified by: Brierley


Crosstalk

Crosstalk

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Impulse noise

Impulse Noise

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Thermal noise

Thermal Noise

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Coaxial cable

Coaxial Cable

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Non twisted wire

Non-twisted Wire

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Level 1 terminations

Level 1 Terminations

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Twisted pair tp

Twisted Pair (TP)

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Shielded twisted pair stp

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

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Unshielded twisted pair utp

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

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Category 5 cat5

Category 5 (CAT5)

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Category 3 cat3

Category 3 (CAT3)

You describe and draw

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Fiber optic cable

Fiber Optic Cable

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Fiber optic cable1

Fiber Optic Cable

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Popular uses for fiber optic cable

Popular Uses for Fiber Optic Cable

  • Includes connecting:

    • Regional and local cable TV facilities

    • Internet NAPs with other large telecommunications exchange point

    • Central offices with other central offices

    • Main feeders with central offices

    • A telecommunication’s network with private LANs

    • A telecommunication’s network with private switching systems, such as PBX

Modified by: Brierley


Selecting appropriate media

Selecting Appropriate Media

  • When selecting telecommunications media consider:

    • Existing infrastructure

    • Throughput potential

    • Cost of installation

    • Noise immunity

    • Security

    • Size and scalability

Modified by: Brierley


Comparison of physical media

Comparison of Physical Media

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Comparison of physical media1

Comparison of Physical Media

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Structured cabling

Structured Cabling

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Backbone wiring

Backbone Wiring

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Telecommunications closet

Telecommunications Closet

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Telecommunications closet1

Telecommunications Closet

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Horizontal wiring

Horizontal Wiring

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Work area

Work Area

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Work area1

Work Area

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Installing utp

Installing UTP

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Crossover cable

Crossover Cable

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Installation tips for cat5 utp

Installation Tips for CAT5 UTP

  • Do not untwist twisted-pair cables more than one-half inch before inserting them into the punch-down block or connector.

  • Pay attention to the bend radius limitations for the type of cable you are installing.

  • Test each segment of cabling as you install it with a cable tester.

  • Use only cable ties to cinch groups of cables together

Modified by: Brierley


Installation tips for cat5 utp1

Installation Tips for CAT5 UTP

  • When pulling cable, do not exert more than 25 pounds of pressure on the cable.

  • Avoid laying cable across the floor where it might sustain damage from rolling chairs or foot traffic.

  • Install cable at least three feet away from fluorescent lights or other sources of EMI.

  • Always leave slack in cable runs.

Modified by: Brierley


Installing fiber

Installing Fiber

  • Splice -the physical joining of two facing and aligned pieces of wire or fiber.

  • Mechanical splicing - the two ends of a fiber optic cable are fixed in position within a tube so that they form one continuous communications channel.

  • Fusion splicing - a connection between fibers is accomplished through the application of heat and the resulting melting and fusion of two fiber strands.

Modified by: Brierley


Mechanical and fusion splicing

Mechanical and Fusion Splicing

Modified by: Brierley


St and sc fiber connectors

ST and SC Fiber Connectors

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Cable installation tips for fiber optic cable

Cable Installation Tips for Fiber Optic Cable

  • When pulling fiber optic cable, do not exert pressure on the cable.

  • Fiber optic cable should be installed within a conduit whenever you are concerned about the potential for environmental damage.

  • Do not exceed the minimum bend radius.

Modified by: Brierley


Troubleshooting connectivity problems

Troubleshooting Connectivity Problems

  • Identify the symptoms

  • Identify the scope of the problem

  • Establish what has changed on the network

  • Determine the most probable cause of the problem

  • Implement a solution

  • Test the solution

  • Recognize the potential effects of the solution

  • Document the solution

Modified by: Brierley


Troubleshooting tools

Troubleshooting Tools

  • Crossover Cable - allows you to quickly and easily verify that a node’s network adapter is transmitting and receiving signals properly.

  • Tone Generator - a small electronic device that issues a signal on a wire pair.

  • Tone Locator - a type of amplifier that can detect the inductive energy emitted by the tone (current) on a wire.

Modified by: Brierley


Tone generator and tone locator

Tone Generator and Tone Locator

Modified by: Brierley


Performance testers

Performance Testers

  • Provides the following functions:

    • Measures the length of each wire pair

    • Ensures that the cable does not exceed recommended maximum lengths

    • Measures the distance from the tester to a cable fault

    • Measures attenuation along a cable

    • Measures crosstalk between wires

Modified by: Brierley


Performance testers1

Performance Testers

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Fiber optic cable testers

Fiber Optic Cable Testers

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Time domain reflectometers

Time Domain Reflectometers

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Telephone test set

Telephone Test Set

Modified by: Brierley


Summary

Summary

  • Characteristics that affect wireline transmission include impedance changes, latency, delay distortion, and noise.

  • Traditional four-pair, non-twisted copper telephone wiring is known as Level 1 cable or quad wire.

  • Category (CAT3) UTP cable is the minimum grade of unshielded twisted-pair cabling for use in telephone systems.

  • To identify the source of cabling infrastructure problems, follow a logical troubleshooting methodology and have the appropriate testing tools handy.

Modified by: Brierley


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