Chap.6
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Chap.6 卤代烃 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chap.6 卤代烃. 第一节 卤代烃的分类、命名及同分异构现象. 一、分类 1. 按分子中所含卤原子的数目,分为一卤代烃和多卤代烃。 2. 按分子中卤原子所连烃基类型,分为 : 卤代烷烃 R-CH2-X 卤代烯烃 R-CH=CH-X 乙烯式 R-CH=CH-CH2-X 烯丙式 R-CH=CH ( CH2 ) n-X ≥2 孤立式

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Chap.6 卤代烃

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Chap.6


1.

2.

R-CH2-X

R-CH=CH-X

R-CH=CH-CH2-X

R-CH=CHCH2n-X 2


3.





2--7--



1

2

3

4

5


  • CX

  • CX


CX CFCH

CH CCl CBr CI

KJ/mol 414 339 285 218

CX CH


RX + NuRNu + X

Nu = HO-RO--CNNH3-ONO2

NuSN

1.

1NaOH

2OH


2.

1

2CNCOOH-CONH2

3.


4.RONa

R-X1RX

5.AgNO3


R3C-X>R2CH-X>RCH2-X

R-I>R-Br>R-Cl

CX

CX

SNSN



E

NaOHkOH


1

3RX > 2RX > 1RX

2 23RXSayzeff


1.

R2MgMgX

RMgXn RMgX


1)


RMgX


2)

RMgX

RMgX

191241

3)


1901

1912



2.Wurtz

2RX + 2 Na RR + 2NaX

3.



SN2

SN2

RCH2BrRCH2BrOH -SN2


1


3SN2

1 Nu-L

2 Walden


SN1

3RX CH2=CHCH2X SN1

SN1


1

SN1

SN1


SN1SN2

SN1 SN2

V = K [ R-X ] V = K [ R-X ] [ Nu]

+


SN1SN2

1

1 SN1SN1

SN1


2SN2

SN2

- C

SN2

- C- C

- C


SN

SN13RX > 2RX > 1RX > CH3X

SN2CH3X > 1RX > 2RX > 3RX

SN1SN2

SN1SN2


E2


E1


1

2

3


1

1 > >

2 R-I > R-Br > R-Cl

AgNO3-


CH2=CHCH2-X > R2CH-X > CH2=CH-X

3R-X > 2R-X > 1R-X

R-I > R-Br > R-Cl



2

1)

P-

P-


2)

CH2=CH-CH2-ClClP-

P-

SN


DDT

11222


P.H.(

1939DDT1948


DDT

60


Freon

CF2Cl2CFCl3CF2Cl2Freon 12


()

()

()

1995



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