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Middle English. Cnut’s Danish-English Empire 1014-1035. Harold Godwin Earl of Wessex. William of Normandy. The Norman Invasion 1066. Battle of Hastings. Harold Godwin dies Normans pillage southern England Christmas 1066: Enthronement of William of Normandy.

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Harold Godwin

Earl of Wessex

William of Normandy



Battle of hastings
Battle of Hastings

  • Harold Godwin dies

  • Normans pillage southern England

  • Christmas 1066: Enthronement of William of Normandy


After the norman conquest 1066 1204
After the Norman Conquest 1066-1204

William replaces the old English nobility by a new Norman nobility.

Soon, every important position in government, church and at universities was held by a Norman.



English in the 13th century
English in the 13th century

After loss of Normandy:

French remains the dominant language of the upper classes.

At the end of the 13th century, English is used more commonly by the upper classes.

King Henry III

1216-1272


The growing importance of english
The growing importance of English

  • Upper classes need to communicate with their people.

  • After the loss of the Normandy, French was no longer needed.

  • Speaking French was fashionable in the 13th century, but Norman French had much lower prestige than the French spoken in Paris.


Early french loan words 1066 1250
Early French loan words (1066-1250)

baron

noble

servant

messenger

feast


French loan words nouns
French loan words: nouns

action adventure number

age air pair

bucket calendar person

carpenter city powder

coast comfort river

cost country sign

courage coward opinion


French loan words nouns1
French loan words: nouns

ease envy poverty

error face reason

noise fault season

flower force sound

Honor hour use

manner task honor

damage debt people


French loan words verbs
French loan words: verbs

advise aim allow

approach arrange arrive

betray change chase

serve comfort complain

conceal consider continue

count deceive destroy

declare defeat delay

desire enjoy enter


French loan words verbs1
French loan words: verbs

force form increase

inform join suppose

marry obey observe

pay wait please

praise prefer propose

prove push receive

refuse relieve remember

waste satisfy save


French loan words adjectives
French loan words: adjectives

able active actual

brief calm certain

clear common contrary

courageous cruel curious

eager easy faint

fierce final firm

foreign gentle hasty


French loan words adjectives1
French loan words: adjectives

honest horrible innocent

large natural nice

original perfect poor

precious pure real

rude safe scarce

second simple single

special stable usual


Government and administration
Government and administration

government crown state

empire realm authority

court parliament assembly

traitor treason exile

liberty office mayor

prince baron duke

sir madam mistress


Church and religion
Church and religion

religion sermon confess

prayer lesson passion

chant sacrifice chapter

abbey cloister virgin

saint miracle mystery

faith mercy pity

virtue preach pray


Law

justice equity judgment

crime judge attorney

bill petition complaint

evidence proof bail

ransom verdict sentence

award fine punishment

prison accuse indict

blame arrest seize

pledge condemn convict

acquit fraud perjury

property estate heir

entail just innocent


Army and navy
Army and navy

army navy pace

enemy battle combat

siege defense ambush

retreat soldier guard

spy captain besiege


Fashion
Fashion

dress habit fashion

robe coat collar

veil mitten adorn

embellish blue brown

fur jewel ivory


Meals and food
Meals and food

dinner supper boil

taste appetite salmon

beef veal pork

sausage bacon gravy

cream sugar salad

fruits orange roast

lemon cherry peach

spice mustard vinegar


Furniture social life
Furniture, social life

couch chair screen

lamp blanket wardrobe

recreation leisure dance

fool music chess

stable retrieve falcon

forest park tournament


Art learning medicine
Art, learning, medicine

art painting beauty

color figure image

tone cathedral ceiling

tower porch bay

column vase poet

rime story paper

pen study logic

geometry grammar noun

clause copy medicine

stomach ointment poison


Loss of germanic words
Loss of Germanic words

French borrowing Lost English word

poor earm

people leod

guilty scyldig

army here

warrior cempa

air lyft

confess andettan

praise hearian


Semantic differentiation
Semantic differentiation

French loan English word

judgment doom

judge deem

cordial hearty

power might

demand ask

desire wish

beef ox

pork swine

veal calf

mutton cheep


Old english verbal prefixes
Old English verbal prefixes

for- (German ver-) forget, forbear, forbid

with- (German mit-) withdraw, withhold

to- (German zu-) ---


English derivational morphemes
English derivational morphemes

-hood

childhood, likelihood, manhood

-ship

friendship, kinship, hardship

-dom

freedom, wisdom, kingdom


Romans verbal affixes
Romans verbal affixes

Verbal prefixes

inter–, counter–, re–, trans–, anti–, dis–,

Verbal suffixes

–able, –ible, –ent, –al, –ous, –ive



Rise of new middle class
Rise of new middle class

Craftsmen

Merchants



Loan words from latin
Loan words from Latin

adjacent conspiracy contempt

custody distract frustrate

genius gesture history

homicide include incredible

individual infancy suppress

infinite innate intellect


Loan words from latin1
Loan words from Latin

interrupt legal magnify

minor moderate private

necessary nervous picture

polite popular prevent

project submit prosody

reject summary substitute


Loan words from flemish dutch low german
Loan words from Flemish, Dutch, Low German

deck dock freight

rover booze gin

easel etching landscape


Middle english grammar
Middle English Grammar

The structure of Middle English is radically different from the structure of Old English.

Old English is a highly inflectional language. Middle English has very little morphology.


Spelling
Spelling

<þ> and <ð> were gradually replaced by <th>


Spelling1
Spelling

[x]<gh>

OE ME

þoht thought

riht right

[u] <ou> or <ow>

OE ME

hour

round

hu how

thu thou

hus house

brun brown

OE ME

hwæt what

hwil while



Phonological changes
Phonological changes

vine (Fr.) fine (Fr.)

view (Fr.) few (Engl.)

vile (Fr.) file (Engl.)


Phonological changes1
Phonological changes

[hu:zian] > [hu:zia] > [hu:z] ‘to house’ V

[hu:s] [hu:s] ‘a house’ N

bath bathe

breath breathe

life live

knife knives


Vowels
Vowels

Long vowels

i: u:

e: o:

a:

Short vowels

i u

e @ o

a


Diphthongs
Diphthongs

[iu] trewe ‘true’

[Eu] fewe ‘few’

[au] clawe ‘claw’

[Ou] bowe ‘bow’

[ai] dai ‘day’

[Ui] point ‘point’

[Oi] chois ‘choice’


Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)


Morphosyntactic changes
Morphosyntactic changes

  • Simplification of inflection/morphology

  • Emergence of new grammatical devices:

  • a. analytical verb forms

  • b. rigid word order




Function of morphological case markers
Function of morphological case markers

  • Peter’s car

  • Der Mann gibt dem Jungen den Stift.




Relics of the en plural in eme
Relics of the -en plural in EME

EME PDE

eyen ‘eyes’

shoon ‘shoes’

hosen ‘hose’

housen ‘houses’

peasen ‘peas’


Relics of the en plural in me
Relics of the -en plural in ME

oxen

children

brethren


Gender
Gender

NEUT Þæt scip ‘that.N ship’

MASC se sta:n ‘that.M stone’

FEM seo giefu ‘that.F gift’







Verbal inflection in middle english
Verbal inflection in Middle English

Person: -s (3rd person)

Number lost

Tense -ed / Ablaut

Mood lost


Grammatical innovations
Grammatical innovations

Morphological cases were replaced by new word order patterns.

Tense and mood affixes were replaced by new analytical verb forms.


Word order in main clauses
Word order in main clauses

Old English

(1) Þaeodese biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church

‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’

Middle English

(2) In the contre of Ethyoptheyslen here childeryn byforn here goddys.

‘In the country of Ethiopia they slay their children in front of their gods.’


Word order in main clauses1
Word order in main clauses

Nowehaueye herde þe vertues & þe significacouns.

‘Now have you heard the virtues and the meanings.’

(1) Neverhas Peter talked to him.

(2) Under no circumstancewould she talk to him.

(3) Only on the weekenddoes he have time to cook dinner.


Word order in subordinate clauses
Word order in subordinate clauses

(1) … þat ðu þis weork naht ne forlate.

‘… that you this work not (not) neglect.’

(2) If a man will þe harme…

‘If a man wants (to) you harm… .’


Word order in questions
Word order in questions

(1) Woot ye not where ther stant a litel toun …

know you not where there stand a little town

‘Don’t you know where the little town is?

(2) Why make ye youreself for to be lyk a fool?

Why make you yourself for to be like a fool

‘Why do you make a fool of yourself?’


Analytical verb forms
Analytical verb forms

Future will catch

Perfect have caught

Passive is caught

Progressive is catching

Modal verbs can / may / must catch


Future
Future

and swiche wolle have the kyngdom of helle, and not of hevene.

‘and such will have the kingdom of hell, and not of heaven’


Perfect
Perfect

(1) Ic hæbbe [þo-ne fisc gefange-ne]

I have the-ACC fish caught-ACC

‘I have the fish caught’

(=I have the fish in a state of being caught)


Perfect1
Perfect

(1) thin geleafa hæfth the gehæled.

your faith has you healed

‘Your faith has healed you.’

(2) Ac hie hæfdon þa… hiora mete genotudne.

but they had then… their food used-up

‘But they had then used up their food.’


Perfect2
Perfect

(1) a. Peter has a fish caught.

(Peter has a caught fish)

b. Peter has caught a fish.


Perfect3
Perfect

(1) þou hauest don oure kunne wo

‘You have done our family woe.’

(2) I am com to myne ende.

‘I have come to my end.’


Passive
Passive

Vorgangspassive: wesen

Zustandspassive weorthan

[men] that wol nat be governedbyhir wyves.

‘[men] that will not be governed by their wives.’


Progressive
Progressive

Participle

(1) For nowis gode Gawayn goande ryght here. For now is good Gawain going right here.

Gerund

(2) I am yn beldyng of a pore hous.

‘I am in (the process of) building a poor house.’


(1) Below you see a summary of Grimm’s law. What does Grimm’s law describe?

*p t k > f D x/h

*b d g > p t k

*bh dh gh > b d g

(2) Explain how Latin influenced English in the OE period.

(3) Characterize the basic word order of OE.

(4) Characterize the vocabulary that English borrowed from Old Norse.

(5) What is the historical source of the present perfect in Modern English?

(6) Characterize the major developmental changes in the English grammar during the ME period.


Perfect4
Perfect Grimm’s law describe?

(1) Ic hæbbe [þo-ne fisc gefange-ne]

I have the-ACC fish caught-ACC

‘I have the fish caught’

(=I have the fish in a state of being caught)


Grammatical innovations1
Grammatical innovations Grimm’s law describe?

Loss of inflectional morphology.

Development of rigid word order.

Development of analytical verb forms.


Word order in main clauses2
Word order in main clauses Grimm’s law describe?

Old English

(1) Þaeodese biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church

‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’

Middle English

(2) In the contre of Ethyoptheyslen here childeryn byforn here goddys.

‘In the country of Ethiopia they slay their children in front of their gods.’


Word order in main clauses3
Word order in main clauses Grimm’s law describe?

Nowehaueye herde þe vertues & þe significacouns.

‘Now have you heard the virtues and the meanings.’

(1) Neverhas Peter talked to him.

(2) Under no circumstancewould she talk to him.

(3) Only on the weekenddoes he have time to cook dinner.


Future1
Future Grimm’s law describe?

and swiche wolle have the kyngdom of helle, and not of hevene.

‘and such will have the kingdom of hell, and not of heaven’


Passive1
Passive Grimm’s law describe?

Vorgangspassive: wesen

Zustandspassive weorthan

[men] that wol nat be governedbyhir wyves.

‘[men] that will not be governed by their wives.’


Modal verbs
Modal verbs Grimm’s law describe?

(1) þat y mowe riche be

‘that I may rich be’

(1) *Do I may go home

(2) *I do not may go home.

(3) *I may to go.

(4) *I am maying go home.


Was Middle English a creole? Grimm’s law describe?

(Baugh & Cable p.125)


Middle English was not a creole: Grimm’s law describe?

The development of Middle English was very different from the development of a creole language.

Although Middle English has very little morphology, it has complex syntactic structures and an intricate phonological system.


The discussion about the creolization of English demonstrates how radically English changed in Middle English:

1. different vocabulary

2. different grammar


What led to the grammatical changes? demonstrates how radically English changed in Middle English:

The Norman Conquest had a significant effect on the English vocabulary, but did it also affect the English grammar?


Why did english grammar change so much
Why did English grammar change so much? demonstrates how radically English changed in Middle English:

  • The stress pattern

  • The contact with Old Norse

  • The loss of an English standard


Middle English Dialects demonstrates how radically English changed in Middle English:


And one of theym named Sheffelde, a mercer, cam in-to an hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.


Middle english dialects
Middle English Dialects hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.

South eyr-en

North egg-es

South –eth loveth

North –es loves

South –inde lovinde

North –ande lovande

South hi, here, hem

North they


Languages and Dialects hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.

What distinguishes a language from a dialect?


Scandinavian languages hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.


Chinese hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.

Dialects


Dialects vs languages
Dialects vs. Languages hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.

The distinction between the terms language and dialect is based on a variety of criteria: 1. linguistic (mutual intelligibility), 2. political, 3. social, 4. cultural.


Regional transitions are fluid hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.


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