Research Workshop SJCC Reading & Writing Center. Series 3: The Writing Process. Review of the Research Paper Process: What stage are you at?. Exploring Organizing and Analyzing Information Ready to Outline and Write the Paper. From a Broad Topic to a Narrow Topic.
Series 3: The Writing Process
In this essay I plan to prove that__________________________________________________________________________.
*Source: Glenn, C., R.K. Miller, S.S. Webb, and L. Gray. The Writer’s Handbook. Second Ed. Boston: Thomson Heinle, 2004.
Directly from The Craft of Researchby Booth, Colomb, & Williams (pg. 101):
Claim: Lifting sanctions would benefit the American economy by increasing oil production
Evidence: logical appeal (facts), emotional appeal
• would cut down on gas and oil prices
Section IV -- Dealing with the Opposition
1st Opposing View: Sanctions are necessary to prevent Iraq from supporting terrorists and
becoming a regional problem again
Strategy for Response: Concede that we want to prevent more conflict and stop terrorism...but we
should lift sanctions gradually, and maintain a military presence in the area (compromise)
2nd Opposing View: Lifting sanctions would make the U.S. look weak
Strategy for Response: It is the humane and fair action to take; also, sanctions contribute to hatred
of the United States and encourage terrorist sentiment (rebuttal)
End with a conclusion that suggests the larger importance of this issue, and why we should care.
Create a final statement that is powerful and memorable.Outlines, cont. http://www.uwc.ucf.edu/handouts/Sample_Argument_Outline.pdf
Sample Argument Outline
Thesis (claim and reason): The American government should lift economic sanctions against
Iraq, because this policy does more harm than good for both countries.
Claim: The sanctions have not accomplished their goal.
Evidence: logical appeal (facts, expert authority)
• Saddam Hussein is still in power
• other dictators have withstood sanctions (Fidel Castro)
Claim: Rather than hurting Saddam, the sanctions only make life worse for the common people of
Evidence: logical appeal (statistics), ethical appeal (fair, humane), emotional appeal
• goes against American ideals of helping other people
• thousands of Iraqi children die each month sanctions continue
• restrictions on medicine and food hurt the poorest people first
Adapted from pg. 116 from The Craft of Research by Booth et al. (2008).
Source image: http://www-as.phy.ohiou.edu/~rouzie/fall151/catoulmin.gifThe Toulmin Argument
TV violence can have harmful psychological effects on children claim 1 because those exposed to lots of it tend to adopt the values of what they see. reason 1 Their constant exposure to violent images makes them unable to distinguish fantasy from reality. reason 2 Smith (1997) found that children ages 5-7 who watched more than three hours of violent television a day were 25 percent more likely to say that most of what they saw on television was “really happening.” evidence supporting reason 2 Of course, some children who watch more violent entertainment might already be attracted to violence. acknowledgement But Jones (1999) found that children with no predisposition to violence were attracted to violent images as those with a violent history. response
Made up of three parts:
Suggestions for a lead in:
From the article “A Voice for the Forsaken; Criminal law in California” from The Economist (06/13/09)Sample Introduction
IN 1995, a year after Californians voted for a "three strikes and you're out" law that guaranteed much tougher sentences for criminals who reoffend, Curtis Wilkerson stole a pair of socks that cost $2.50. This is usually counted as a misdemeanor, but a prosecutor in Los Angeles got it classed as a felony. Since Mr. Wilkerson had already been convicted of abetting two robberies in 1981, when he was 19, his petty theft was counted as the third strike. He was sentenced to life in prison.
Getting Mr. Wilkerson and others like him out of prison is now the mission of a group of students at Stanford Law School. Under the supervision of two teachers, Michael Romano and GalitLipa, they try to bring the most egregious injustices of California's three-strikes law before judges. About 1,000 "strikers" have written to them from prison, and about 20 are active cases. Three have been released so far.
1. Generalization—Sentences that make one of your specific points more general in focus.
2. Question for Further Study—Sentences that mention a related subject or question that is beyond the focus of the essay.
3. Synthesis of Main Points—Sentences that pull together the points proven in the essay to say something new.
4. Application—Sentences that apply the proven thesis statement to another idea or issue.
5. Argument Limitations—Sentences that explain how or why your conclusions are limited.
6. Emphasis of Key Point—Sentences that mention and add importance to one of the points of your essay.
7. Statement of Significance—Sentences that discuss the importance and relevance of the proven thesis statement.