Reaching the cell phone only generation the behavioral risk factor surveillance system experience
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Reaching the Cell Phone only Generation: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Experience. Michael Link 1 , Michael Battaglia 2 , Martin Frankel 3 , Larry Osborn 2 , and Ali H. Mokdad 4. 1 The Nielsen Company. 2 Abt Associates. 3 Baruch College, City University of New York.

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Reaching the cell phone only generation the behavioral risk factor surveillance system experience
Reaching the Cell Phone only Generation: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Experience

Michael Link1, Michael Battaglia2, Martin Frankel3,

Larry Osborn2, and Ali H. Mokdad4

1 The Nielsen Company

2 Abt Associates

3 Baruch College, City University of New York

4 Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

2008 DC-AAPOR Meeting on Cell Phone Research, Washington, DC


Phone shop apocalypse ii the plague of cell phones
Phone Shop Apocalypse II: Factor Surveillance System ExperienceThe Plague of Cell Phones!!!


Conducting surveys via cell phones can be operationally challenging
Conducting surveys via cell phones can be operationally challenging

  • Cell phone frame very inefficient

  • Cannot use autodialers for “cold calling”

  • Charges for incoming calls/minutes used

  • Safety concerns

  • Potential mode effects / measurement errors

    • Level of cognitive engagement


Behavioral risk factor surveillance system brfss
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) challenging

  • Monthly state-based RDD survey of health issues and related risk factors

  • 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Virgin Islands

  • 350,000+ adult interviews conducted in 2007

  • Significant declines in participation overall, particularly among younger adults and males


2007 brfss cell phone pilot
2007 BRFSS cell phone pilot challenging

  • Conducted in Georgia, New Mexico, & Pennsylvania

  • Target: 200 cell & landline / 200 cell-only (per state)

    • 1,200 total interviews

  • Abbreviated BRFSS core interview:

    • 66 questions

    • 15-17 minutes (on average)

  • Post-paid (contingent) Incentives:

    • $10 for completing the detailed interview

    • $1 for completing only the screener


Screening questions
Screening questions challenging

  • Introduction

  • Confirmed telephone number

  • Is this a cellular telephone?

  • Are you 18 years of age or older?

  • Are you a resident of (state)?

  • “Do you also have a landline telephone that is used to make and receive calls?”

    • Yes – took subsample of respondents

    • No – took all respondents





Landline and cell phone frames populations
Landline and Cell phone challengingframes & populations

Landline

Telephone

Frame

Cellular

Telephone

Frame

Landline only (A)

Landline & Cell phone (B, C)

Cell phone only (D)


Percent male
Percent male challenging

51.1

46.0

37.9

38.2

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent 18 34 years
Percent 18-34 years challenging

51.4

24.0

14.5

19.6

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent hispanic
Percent Hispanic challenging

21.4

15.2

16.8

12.2

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent black
Percent black challenging

15.0

15.8

9.3

7.5

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent high school or less education
Percent high school or less education challenging

60.3

48.5

39.8

33.6

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent married
Percent married challenging

69.8

62.0

49.5

32.0

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied



Percent any kind of health care coverage
Percent any kind of health care coverage challenging

89.0

86.0

78.7

70.1

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent not received care due to cost barrier
Percent not received care due to cost barrier challenging

20.4

24.9

16.3

10.2

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent currently smoke cigarettes
Percent currently smoke cigarettes challenging

31.1

23.4

24.8

17.3

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent ever tested for hiv
Percent ever tested for HIV challenging

54.2

43.6

37.5

36.6

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied


Percent binge drink past 30 days
Percent binge drink past 30 days challenging

28.7

21.1

15.5

11.0

Landline survey

Cell phone survey

State equalized design weight applied



Cost per interview
Cost per Interview challenging

  • Data collection costs only

  • Level of effort:

    • RDD = 9.1 calls/case

    • Cell = 3.3 calls / case

  • Response rate:

    • RDD = 43%

    • Cell = 26%

  • Interview length:

    • RDD = 25 minutes

    • Cell = 12 minutes

$196

$74

$64


What have we learned
What have we learned? challenging

  • Group with both landline & cell phone differ depending on the frame from which they were sampled

    • Mode effect? Response / nonresponse effect? Frame effect?

  • Cell phone only group differs significantly from landline group on some issue domains, but not others

    • Risk behaviors seem most problematic


What have we learned1
What have we learned? challenging

  • Cell phone & landline usage varies significantly across states

    • Makes use of national estimates for post survey adjustment problematic

  • Compared to landline surveys, cell phone surveys:

    • Have lower rates of response at the screener stage

      • Similar rates at the interview stage

    • Working residential rates lower, but not as bad as expected

    • Are considerably more expensive


Address based sampling abs as a potential alternative
Address Based Sampling (ABS) challengingas a potential alternative

  • “Address Based Sampling” refers to the probabilistic sampling of addresses from a centralized database

    • Typically current discussions are focused on the USPS DSF

  • Offers an alternative means of sampling cell phone households

    • Does require initial contact via mail or in-person



Contact michael link michael link@nielsen com for more information on brfss www cdc gov brfss
Contact: challengingMichael [email protected] more information on BRFSS:www.cdc.gov/brfss


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