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GHSGT PHYSICAL SCIENCE STANDARDS. SPS1. The Structure of an Atom. By: Lauren Lancaster and Wade Lipham. Protons- positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom. Electrons- the negatively charged particles in an atom. Neutrons- neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom.

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GHSGT

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

STANDARDS


The structure of an atom

SPS1

The Structure of an Atom

By: Lauren Lancaster and Wade Lipham


Protons positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom

Protons- positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.

Electrons- the negatively charged particles in an atom.

Neutrons- neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom.


Atomic number the number of protons and electrons in an atom

The element’s identity number is found by the number of protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

Atomic Number- The number of protons and electrons in an atom.

Atomic Mass- This includes the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an element.


Isotopes
Isotopes protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

Isotopes do not change the element’s identity number but it does affect the element’s atomic mass.

Hydrogen has three isotopes:

Protium which has a mass of 1 and has one proton and no neutrons

Deuterium which has a mass of 2 and has one proton and one neutron

Tritium which has a mass of 3 and has one proton and two neutrons


Covalent and ionic

Covalent protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

Equal sharing of valence electrons

Non- metal with a non-metal

Ionic

Transfer of valence electrons

Metal and a non- metal

Covalent and Ionic

  • Both

  • Kinds of bonds

  • Move valence electrons


Questions
Questions protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

  • How do you determine the number of protons in an element?

Look at the Atomic number, this number also tells the number of electrons

2. What is one difference between ionic and covalent bonds.

See the graph on slide 5


3. Where are protons and neutrons located? protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

Inside the nucleus of an atom

4. What does and isotope affect about an element?

An isotope affects the elements atomic mass


  • SPS2: protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.Students will explore the nature of matter, its classifications, and its system for naming types of matter.


Calculating Density protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

Density equals mass divided by volume

(D= m/V)

EXAMPLE-

m= 14g

V= 7cm^3

So… 14g divide by 7cm^3 = 2g/cm^3


Predicting Formulas for Ionic and Covalent Bonds protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

Ionic bonds- These result from the transfer of electrons from

one atom to another.

EXAMPLE: AlO becomes Al2O3

Covalent bonds- These form when two or more elements

Share electrons to create a stronger outer shell.

EXAMPLE: Hydrogen (H) has 1 electron and it wants 2. H

shares electrons with another H in order to have 2 electrons.

It becomes H2.


The Law of Conservation of Matter protons found in the element. If the number of protons is changed in an element it is no longer the same element.

This law states that matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed. They can, however, be interchanged with each other.

Synthesis: Na + Cl = NaCl

Decomposition: NaCl = Na + Cl

Single Replacement: NaCl + F = NaF + Cl

Double Replacement: NaCl + LiBr = NaLi + ClBr


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

Radioactivity

The spontaneous release of energy and particles from the nucleus of an atom.

Radioisotope

An Isotopes of radioactive elements.

Isotope

An atom of the same element with a different number of neutrons.


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

Alpha Particles

A wave of energy traveling as particles and contains two protons and two neutrons.

Beta Particles

A wave of energy as an electron is given off by a radioisotope.

Gamma Rays

Waves of energy given off as isotopes.


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

Most dangerous type of radiation


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

Fission

The splitting the nucleus of an atom into smaller pieces. It is used to make nuclear energy.

Fusion

A nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form a bigger nuclei that releases energy.


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

Half-life

The time it takes for half of the particles in the nucleus to decay. It breaks down elements into smaller harmless elements. Elements with larger atomic numbers have a longer half-life.

Carbon 14 has a half-life of 5,730 years.


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

Cancer

Radioactive Waste

Fission is used to create nuclear energy. It is used daily across the country. In medicine we use radioactive isotopes like arsenic to find brain tumors. In agriculture we radiate our animal and plant food so they

will grow faster.

There are many

disadvantages that

comes with nuclear

energy. Such as…..

Genetic Defects


SPS 3: Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity

QUESTIONS

The basis for a nuclear reaction is what?

What is the spontaneous release of energy and particles from a nucleus of an atom?

FISSION

What is the time it takes for half of a particle to decay?

HALF-LIFE

Radioactivity

Click for answer!

Click for next question


SPS 6 components of radioactivity

Students will

investigate the

properties of a solution.


Solute- a substance that dissolves into a solution. components of radioactivityex. salt.

Solvent- a substance that dissolves a solute to make a solution. ex. water


Conductivity- when melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity.

O

Cl-

Cl-

Na+

Na+

H

H

Cl-

Cl-

Na+



SPS6 given quantity of solution

  • When dissolving in a solvent, a solute will dissolve better when warm.

  • The size of the particles of solvent also affect the rate of solubility.

  • Stirring a solute helps with the rate at which a solute will dissolve.


SPS6 given quantity of solution

Solubility

Temperature


SPS6 given quantity of solution

  • Acids

  • Solid or liquid compounds that contain hydrogen

  • Sour in taste

  • Can be detected by litmus indicator paper

  • a strong acid will release many hydrogen ions into a water solution

  • A very strong acid can corrode metal

  • Bases

  • Alkaline solutions

  • Bitter in taste

  • Slippery

  • Contain hydroxide ions

  • A strong base is poisonous and corrosive to the skin

  • Will dissolve fats and oils


SPS6 given quantity of solution

  • Examples of AcidsExamples of Bases

  • Lemons lye (used in soap)

  • Tea ammonia

  • Sour milk milk of magnesia

  • Vinegar deoderant/anti-persperant

  • Examples of Neutrals

  • Water


SPS10 given quantity of solution

Properties of

electricity and magnetism


SPS10 given quantity of solution

  • Static Electricity- type of electrical charge caused by friction between two objects

  • Friction- force between surfaces that composes motion


Induction given quantity of solution - The generation of electromotive force in a closed circuit by a varying magnetic flux through the circuit

SPS10


Conduction movement of heat energy through a substance by direct contact between the particles
Conduction given quantity of solution - movement of heat energy through a substance by direct contact between the particles.

SPS10


Flow of electrons
Flow of Electrons given quantity of solution

SPS10

  • Alternating Current - an electric current that changes direction at regualr intervals, also called AC

  • Direct Current- an electric current that has a constant flow of electrons in a single direction, also called DC


Voltage resistance and current
Voltage, Resistance, and Current given quantity of solution

SPS10

  • This relationship is called Ohm's law: The relationship among voltage, current, and resistance are within the circuit.  The size of the current that flows in a circuit varies in the proportion of the voltage which is applied to the circuit, and in inverse proportion to the resistance through which it must pass.


Magnetism
 Magnetism given quantity of solution

SPS10

  • Electomagnets- magnets made by winding wire around a core and passing electricity through the wire.


SPS10 given quantity of solution

  • Permanent Magnets- magnets that are magnetic all the time


SPS10 given quantity of solution

  • Simple Motors - converts

    electrical energy into

    mechanical energy,


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