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Chapter 4. International Politics. International Politics. Objectives Introduction: changing political systems Economic integration. Objectives. Compare and contrast major political and economic systems and note the linkage between the two types of systems

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

International Politics


International politics
International Politics

  • Objectives

  • Introduction: changing political systems

  • Economic integration


Objectives
Objectives

  • Compare and contrast major political and economic systems and note the linkage between the two types of systems

  • Examine the primary reasons for the current privatization movement and the economic impact that this movement is having on selected countries

  • Describe the five major levels of economic integration and how each works

  • Discuss how MNEs are using strategic planning to benefit from current worldwide economic integration efforts

  • Discuss the impact of NGOs on international business


Introduction changing political systems
Introduction: changing political systems

  • Over the last two decades there has been a dramatic change in the political systems of many countries:

    • In particular, there has been a move towards market-driven economies in Eastern Europe and China


Political ideologies and economics
Political ideologies and economics

  • Political systems:

    • Democracy: A system of government in which the people directly or through their elected officials, decide what is to be done

    • Totalitarianism: A system of government in which one individual or party maintains complete control and either refuses to recognize other parties or suppresses them


  • Economic systems:

    • Market-driven economy: An economy in which goods and services are allocated on the basis of consumer demand

    • Centrally determined economy: An economy in which goods and services are allocated based on a plan formulated by a committee that decided what is to be offered

    • Mixed economies: Economic systems characterized by a combination of market and centrally driven planning


Government control of assets
Government control of assets

  • Privatization: The process of selling government assets to private buyers

    • Divestiture: A process by which a government or business sells assets

    • Contract Management: A process by which an organization (such as the government) transfers operating responsibility of an industry without transferring the legal title and ownership

  • Nationalization: A process by which the government takes control of business assets, with or without remuneration of the owner



Economic integration
Economic integration mean that they are not involved in business. Business-government cooperation continues to be beneficial, particularly in the EU and Japan.

  • The establishment of transnational rules and regulations that enhance economic trade and cooperation among countries


Trade creation and diversion
Trade creation and diversion mean that they are not involved in business. Business-government cooperation continues to be beneficial, particularly in the EU and Japan.

  • Trade creation: a process in which members of an economic integration group begin to focus their efforts on those goods and services for which they have a comparative advantage and start trading more extensively with each other

  • Trade diversion: a process in which members of an economic integration group decrease trade with non-member countries in favor of trade with each other


Levels of economic integration
Levels of economic integration mean that they are not involved in business. Business-government cooperation continues to be beneficial, particularly in the EU and Japan.

  • Free Trade Area: barriers to trade (such as tariffs) among member countries are removed (eg. NAFTA)

  • Customs Union: tariff between member countries are eliminated and a common trade policy toward nonmember countries is established

  • Common Market: elimination of trade barriers among member countries, a common external trade policy, and mobility of factors of production among member countries


  • Economic union: mean that they are not involved in business. Business-government cooperation continues to be beneficial, particularly in the EU and Japan. a deep form of integration characterized by free movement of goods, services, and factors of production among member countries and full integration of economic policies

  • Political union: An economic union in which there is full economic integration, unification of economic policies, and a single government


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