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1. Chapter 4Policing: Purpose and Organization
2. Learning Objectives Explain the basic purposes of policing in democratic societies
List and describe the three major levels of public law enforcement
Identify the three styles of policing
Describe community policing
Describe the nature of scientific police management
Identify factors that influence an individual police officers use of discretion
3. The Rights of the AccusedUnder Investigation Individual Rights: Common law, constitutional, statutory, and humanitarian rights of the accused:
A right against unreasonable searches
A right against unreasonable arrest
A right against unreasonable seizures of property
A right to fair questioning by authorities
A right to protection from personal harm
4. The Rights of the AccusedUnder Investigation Public Order: Individual rights must be effectively balanced against these community concerns:
The efficient apprehension of offenders
The prevention of crimes
5. The Police Mission The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are to:
Library Extra 4-1
Web Extras 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3
Hear author discuss the chapter.
6. American Policing: From the Federal to the Local Level Three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions
7. Federal Agencies There are 11 United States government services
Web Extra 4-4
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Began in 1908
The Mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners.
8. Federal Bureau of Investigation Organization
56 field offices and 400 satellite offices (resident offices)
Legal attach offices (Legats)
Major FBI operations
National Computer Crime Squad (NCCS)
Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)
Laboratory Division: Web Extra 4-5
National Academy Program: Web Extra 4-6
9. State-Level Agencies American state policing
10. State-Level Agencies Centralized state policing model:
Assist local law enforcement
Operate identification bureaus
Maintain a centralized criminal records repository
Patrol the states highways
Provide select training for municipal and county officers
11. State-Level Agencies Decentralized state policing model:
Draws a clear distinction between traffic enforcement on state highways and other state-level law enforcement functions.
Characterizes operations in the southern United States.
Web Extra 4-7
12. Local Agencies The term local police encompasses a wide variety of agencies.
13. Local Agencies 13,580 municipal police departments
3,100 sheriffs departments
The majority of local agencies employ fewer than ten full-time officers.
City police chiefs are typically appointed.
Sheriffs are elected officials of a county law enforcement agency.
14. Policing Styles A style of policing describes how a particular police agency sees its purpose and identifies the methods and techniques it uses to fulfill that purpose.
15. Police-Community Relations Police-community relations refers to:
Team policing is:
16. Police-Community Relations Strategic policing is:
Problem-solving policing is:
17. Police-Community Relations Community policing is:
Elements of community policing:
Community-based crime prevention
Reorientation of patrol activities to emphasize the importance of non-emergency services
Increased police accountability to the public
Decentralization of command
18. Police-Community Relations
19. Police-Community Relations Chicagos Alternative Policing Strategies (CAPS)
Library Extras 4-5 and 4-6
Web Extra 4-9
Community Policing Consortium
Web Extra 4-10
20. Critique of Community Policing Its complexity and evolving nature make its effectiveness difficult to measure.
Citizen satisfaction with police performance is difficult to conceptualize and quantify.
Conditions of life, rather than race, are most predictive of citizen dissatisfaction.
There may not be a high degree of consensus in the community.
Not all officers are willing to accept nontraditional images of police work.
21. Critique of Community Policing Police subculture refers to:
Socialization into the police subculture commences with recruit training and continues thereafter.
Committed to traditional view of police work.
Library Extra 4-7
22. Scientific Police Management Scientific police management refers to:
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)
Exemplary Projects Program
Kansas City Experiment
23. Discretion and the Individual Officer Police discretion refers to:
Individual officers retain considerable discretion in what they do.
24. Factors That Influence Discretion