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CHEM 163 Chapter 22. Spring 2009. The Elements in Nature. What is the earth?. 4.5 billion year old planet. Differentiation : regions of differing composition and density. Core: 10-15 g/cm 3 Molten outer core Solid inner core Mantle: 4-6 g/cm 3 Crust: 2.8 g/cm 3.

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the elements in nature
The Elements in Nature

What is the earth?

4.5 billion year old planet

Differentiation: regions of differing composition and density

  • Core:
    • 10-15 g/cm3
    • Molten outer core
    • Solid inner core
  • Mantle:
    • 4-6 g/cm3
  • Crust:
    • 2.8 g/cm3
abundances of elements
Abundances of Elements
  • Large differences between Earth & universe (especially for H)
  • O, Si, Fe, Mg abundant in Earth & universe
    • 90% of Earth’s mass
  • Core rich in Co, Ni, Fe (dense metals); no O
  • Crust is unique
    • Nonmetals; metalloids; light, active metals (Al, Ca, Na, K)
making of the earth
Making of the Earth
  • Cold gases + debris from former stars = Sun + planets
  • Cold, uniform solid sphere
  • Heats up to 104 K  molten earth
    • Radioactive decay
    • Lots of meteor impacts
  • Earth cooled  layered earth
    • Dense material sinks
      • Fe
    • Lighter material rises
      • Silicates:

Si, Al, Mg (some Fe) + oxygen (rocks)

    • Gases form atmosphere
      • H2O, CO, N2 or NH3

core

mantle

crust

earth s crust
Earth’s Crust
  • Solid, liquid and gas
    • Lithosphere
    • Hydrosphere
    • Atmosphere
  • Biosphere:

living systems that have inhabited the planet

  • Energy for reactions:
    • Geothermal; lightning; solar; meteors
  • Simple algae: CO2 + H2O  organic molecules + O2
    • Oxidation

http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo_index/LOcanada1/102/images/L02_4.jpg

life s effect on earth
Life’s Effect On Earth
  • Created oxidizing environment
  • Distributed elements
    • [Na+] >>> [K+] in oceans
      • K+ part of clay
      • K+ absorbed by plants
    • TM oxides and sulfides (insoluble)
sources of elements
Sources of Elements

In what form is each element found?

  • Pure (diatomics; Au, Pt; C in coal)
  • Oxides
  • Salts

ore: natural compound or mixtures of compounds from which elements can be harvested ($)

the elements in nature industry
The Elements in Nature & Industry
  • Teaching in pairs

Wednesday:

    • Fuel Cells (21.5)—Chris & Taylor
    • The Carbon Cycle & the Nitrogen Cycle (22.2) – Jarrett & Ani
    • The Phosphorous Cycle (22.2) – Darby & Toan
    • Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal From its Ore (22.3) – Hana & Terri

Thursday:

    • Na & K Metals; Magnesium & Bromine (22.4) – Tae & Zephan
    • Iron, Copper, and Aluminum (22.4) – Nicole & Liz
    • The Many Sources & Uses of Hydrogen (22.4) – Jena & Trung
    • Chemical Manufacturing (22.5) – Brenna & Robert
  • Homework (due Tues. 6/9)
  • Quiz (Thursday, 6/11)
requirements
Requirements
  • 8-10 minute presentation
  • 1-2 minutes for questions
  • Cover the main points from your section
  • Both group members must speak
  • Reference any sources of information used
  • An original visual aid must be created and used as part of your presentation
    • Poster, PowerPoint presentation, brochure, other
  • Both presentation and visual aid must be clearly organized
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