Chem 163 chapter 22
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CHEM 163 Chapter 22. Spring 2009. The Elements in Nature. What is the earth?. 4.5 billion year old planet. Differentiation : regions of differing composition and density. Core: 10-15 g/cm 3 Molten outer core Solid inner core Mantle: 4-6 g/cm 3 Crust: 2.8 g/cm 3.

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CHEM 163 Chapter 22

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Chem 163 chapter 22

CHEM 163Chapter 22

Spring 2009


The elements in nature

The Elements in Nature

What is the earth?

4.5 billion year old planet

Differentiation: regions of differing composition and density

  • Core:

    • 10-15 g/cm3

    • Molten outer core

    • Solid inner core

  • Mantle:

    • 4-6 g/cm3

  • Crust:

    • 2.8 g/cm3


Abundances of elements

Abundances of Elements

  • Large differences between Earth & universe (especially for H)

  • O, Si, Fe, Mg abundant in Earth & universe

    • 90% of Earth’s mass

  • Core rich in Co, Ni, Fe (dense metals); no O

  • Crust is unique

    • Nonmetals; metalloids; light, active metals (Al, Ca, Na, K)


Making of the earth

Making of the Earth

  • Cold gases + debris from former stars = Sun + planets

  • Cold, uniform solid sphere

  • Heats up to 104 K  molten earth

    • Radioactive decay

    • Lots of meteor impacts

  • Earth cooled  layered earth

    • Dense material sinks

      • Fe

    • Lighter material rises

      • Silicates:

        Si, Al, Mg (some Fe) + oxygen (rocks)

    • Gases form atmosphere

      • H2O, CO, N2 or NH3

core

mantle

crust


Earth s crust

Earth’s Crust

  • Solid, liquid and gas

    • Lithosphere

    • Hydrosphere

    • Atmosphere

  • Biosphere:

    living systems that have inhabited the planet

  • Energy for reactions:

    • Geothermal; lightning; solar; meteors

  • Simple algae: CO2 + H2O  organic molecules + O2

    • Oxidation

http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo_index/LOcanada1/102/images/L02_4.jpg


Life s effect on earth

Life’s Effect On Earth

  • Created oxidizing environment

  • Distributed elements

    • [Na+] >>> [K+] in oceans

      • K+ part of clay

      • K+ absorbed by plants

    • TM oxides and sulfides (insoluble)


Sources of elements

Sources of Elements

In what form is each element found?

  • Pure (diatomics; Au, Pt; C in coal)

  • Oxides

  • Salts

ore: natural compound or mixtures of compounds from which elements can be harvested ($)


The elements in nature industry

The Elements in Nature & Industry

  • Teaching in pairs

    Wednesday:

    • Fuel Cells (21.5)—Chris & Taylor

    • The Carbon Cycle & the Nitrogen Cycle (22.2) – Jarrett & Ani

    • The Phosphorous Cycle (22.2) – Darby & Toan

    • Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal From its Ore (22.3) – Hana & Terri

      Thursday:

    • Na & K Metals; Magnesium & Bromine (22.4) – Tae & Zephan

    • Iron, Copper, and Aluminum (22.4) – Nicole & Liz

    • The Many Sources & Uses of Hydrogen (22.4) – Jena & Trung

    • Chemical Manufacturing (22.5) – Brenna & Robert

  • Homework (due Tues. 6/9)

  • Quiz (Thursday, 6/11)


Requirements

Requirements

  • 8-10 minute presentation

  • 1-2 minutes for questions

  • Cover the main points from your section

  • Both group members must speak

  • Reference any sources of information used

  • An original visual aid must be created and used as part of your presentation

    • Poster, PowerPoint presentation, brochure, other

  • Both presentation and visual aid must be clearly organized


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