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Management of child and adolescent obesity . Barwon Division 9 th November 2008. Speaker: Dr Colin Bell, Program Director, Good for Kids. Good for Life. Acknowledgement. Louise A Baur Discipline of Paediatrics & Child Health, Univ. Sydney; NSW Centre for Overweight & Obesity

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Management of child and adolescent obesity

Management of child and adolescent obesity

Barwon Division

9th November 2008

Speaker: Dr Colin Bell, Program Director, Good for Kids. Good for Life


Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement

Louise A Baur

Discipline of Paediatrics & Child Health, Univ. Sydney;

NSW Centre for Overweight & Obesity

The Children’s Hospital at Westmead

Email: louiseb3@chw.edu.au


Obesity
Obesity

  • One of today’s most blatantly visible – yet most neglected – public health problems

  • The public health equivalent of climate change

  • The Millennium Disease

WHO; www.who.int/nut/obs.htm; Laing & Rayner, Obesity Reviews 2007; www.iotf.org


ObesityOne of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and adolescence1:4 school-aged children are overweight or obese


Are these children presenting to general practice
Are these children presenting to general practice?


YesBut in even higher numbers than for the general populationAnd NOT for the problem of overweight or obesity


In Australia, of every 200 children presenting to their GP, 60 are overweight or obese (23 obese) – and 1 is offered weight management intervention

BEACH data set, Annual national random survey of 1000 GP surgeries

2002-2006, Children aged 2- 17 years, Self-reported heights & weights

Cretikos M et al, Medical Care, 2008, in press.


What gps say are the barriers to management of paediatric obesity in general practice
What GPs say are the barriers to management of paediatric obesity in general practice

  • Lack of time

  • Lack of reimbursement

  • Lack of parent / patient motivation

  • Lack of effective interventions

  • Lack of support services

  • Complex, difficult problem

  • Inadequate training

  • Parent / child sensitivity

Results of focus groups held with NSW GPs.

King L et al. British Journal of General Practice. 2007; 57:124-129.


So what can be done in general practice
So, what can be done obesity in general practicein general practice?


Case 1 katie 6 years of age
Case 1: Katie obesity in general practice– 6 years of age

  • Chinese ethnic origin; only child of busy parents (father has two jobs; mother works as a cleaner)

  • Mother brings her to you with an intercurrent illness (URTI) which is simply managed

  • But you note incidentally that Katie looks quite plump for her age


How do you confirm your impression obesity in general practice

that Katie is overweight?


How do you confirm your impression obesity in general practice

that Katie is overweight?

Measure height & weight

Calculate BMI

Plot on BMI for age chart


Clinical example of Katie obesity in general practice

Girl aged 6 years

Weight 33 kg

Height 120 cm

BMI 22.9 kg/m2

Overweight or obese?

Normal weight?

Unsure?


Katie obesity in general practice

Girl aged 6 years

Weight 33 kg

Height 120 cm

BMI 22.9 kg/m2

(>>97th centile for age;

obese range)


You obesity in general practice’ve confirmed your clinical impression

that Katie’s BMI is in the obese range

Would you raise this issue

with Katie’s mother?

If so: why?

If not: why not?


Factors to consider
Factors to consider obesity in general practice

  • Health risks for Katie

    • Severity of obesity

    • Associated co-morbidities

    • Family history of obesity, diabetes and related disorders

  • Approach to raising the issue

    • Avoid stigmatising

    • Avoid blaming

    • Solution-focussed

    • Supportive


What would you ask about obesity in general practice

in the family history?

Are there high-risk ethnic groups?


High risk family history ethnicity
High risk family history & ethnicity obesity in general practice

  • Enquire re F/H of obesity and type 2 diabetes:

    • Obesity, type 2 diabetes, premature heart disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, hypertension, dyslipidaemia

  • Enquire re parental eating disorders & bariatric surgery

  • Ethnic groups at higher risk of diabetes etc

    • Indian sub-continent, Mediterranean/Middle-Eastern, Maori & Pacific Islander, Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander, probably east Asian


Katie s family history
Katie obesity in general practice’s family history

  • Family history:

    • Obesity – maternal grandmother

    • Type 2 diabetes – maternal grandmother

  • Chinese ethnic origin


Katie s medical assessment
Katie obesity in general practice’s medical assessment

  • Mild teasing by classmate at school

  • No other co-morbidities suggested by history or physical examination


How would you raise this issue obesity in general practice

with Katie’s mother?


Little direct evidence to guide approach but the following may be useful
Little direct evidence to guide approach obesity in general practicebut the following may be useful

  • Regular assessment of growth and plotting of BMI allows the issue of growth and weight to be raised

  • Be non-judgmental and sensitive

  • Example of an introduction:

    • “I notice that Katie’s weight (or weight adjusted for height) is high for her age. Is that something you’ve been concerned about? ….. Would you like to discuss it at some stage?”


Katie obesity in general practice’s mother is interested in talking further about this issue, as she knows that Katie has been teased about her weight.

Obesity is not the original reason

for today’s consultation ….

and your waiting room is crowded!

What would your next steps be?


Next steps

Acknowledge the importance of dealing with the issue obesity in general practice

Make another appointment – with Katie’s mother (+/- other carers) - to start discussions re weight management intervention

Do not include Katie in the weight management intervention – she’s only 6 years of age!

Next steps


Weight status of children in the Parents-only vs. Parents + Child treatments(Golan. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006)

Parents + child

Parents-only

65

Baseline

a

b

55

45

6 months

45.5

45.0

43

41.6

35

Overweight Percentage

12 months

32

31.8

25

*

15

BMI +0.32

**

BMI -1.09

5

BMI -1.28

Change within each group * p=0.003 ** p=0.001

Change between groups a p=0.02 b p<0.05


Be developmentally sensitive
Be developmentally sensitive Child treatments

  • For younger, pre-adolescent children: Focus on parents as the agents of change. Consider excluding the child from the consultations

  • For adolescents:

    Include some adolescent-only sessions


Katie Child treatments’s mother returns a week later when Katie is at school, in order to discuss strategies for weight management.

What approach would you use?

What strategies might you discuss?


The basics
The basics Child treatments

  • Family focus

  • Developmentally appropriate approach

  • Long-term behaviour change

  • Both sides of the energy balance equation need to be addressed

  • Set small, achievable goals

  • Regular follow-up and support


The big five chw program
The Big Five Child treatments(CHW Program)

  • Choose water as your main drink

  • Eat breakfast each day

  • Eat together once a day as a family without the TV being on

  • Spend at least 60 minutes outside every day (playing or being physically active)

  • Limit screen time to less than 2 hours per day (TV, electronic games, DVDs, computer, Ipod, MP3 or videos etc)


The first law of thermodynamics Child treatments

Energy is conservedEnergy in = energy out


Practical tips regarding food 1
Practical tips regarding food - 1 Child treatments

  • The person who buys the food and who cooks it needs to be engaged in the treatment approach

  • Regular meals – especially breakfast

  • Water as the main beverage

    • limit soft drinks, fruit juice, cordial

  • Eat together as a family

    • Make a ritual of meal-times

    • No TV or other distractions


Practical tips regarding food 2
Practical tips regarding food - 2 Child treatments

  • Store healthy snacks – for morning & afternoon teas

  • One approach for the whole family

  • What foods are in the cupboards? These will invariably be eaten!

  • Check serve sizes – are these appropriate for a child?


Tv viewing and a screen friendly lifestyle
TV viewing and a screen-friendly Child treatmentslifestyle

  • Look at TV, video game and computer usage - for the whole family

  • How many TVs are there in the house? Is there one in Katie’s bedroom? Who turns the TV on or off?

  • Explore alternatives

  • Parental overview vital


Practical tips regarding activity 1
Practical tips regarding activity - 1 Child treatments

  • Family approach to television, video-games, computer use

    • Plan TV viewing with the TV Guide

    • Limit to <2 hours per day

    • No TV on during meals

  • Transport to/from school

    • Walking instead?

    • Dropping off at a distance from the school gate?

  • Use of the family car. Is it needed for short trips?


Practical tips regarding activity 2
Practical tips regarding activity - 2 Child treatments

  • For most, organised activity is less important than increased opportunities for incidental activity

  • “Mucking around” outside is vital:

    • balls, skipping ropes, swings, trampolines …

    • backyards?, parks?, other playgrounds?

  • Whole-family opportunities for physical activity?

  • Role-modelling of parents


Different exercise programs epstein 1996

15 Child treatments

10

Calisthenics

Gym-aerobics

5

Lifestyle

0

-5

% Change in Overweight

-10

-15

-20

-25

0

5

10

Time (y)

Different “exercise” programs (Epstein, 1996)


Targeting sedentary behaviour epstein 1996

0 Child treatments

-5

Exercise

% change in overweight

-10

Combined

Sedentary

-15

-20

0

4

12

0

14

Time (months)

Targeting sedentary behaviour (Epstein, 1996)


What happened with katie
What happened with Katie? Child treatments

  • Mother identified the following as issues she’d like to change:

    • Soft drink intake (evening meal and afternoon tea in particular)

    • TV viewing (accompanies mother while she does her cleaning jobs – mother turns on TV to act as child-minder for Katie; TV on while eating at home)

    • School lunch “treats”


What happened with katie1
What happened with Katie? Child treatments

  • Strategies

    • Only water offered at meal-times

    • TV viewing – colouring in equipment, books and games brought so that Katie is occupied while mother works; some extra support for child-minding from neighbour; TV turned off when the family eats

    • Katie booked in to After School Care three days a week

    • School lunch box – no more packets of crisps!


Katie’s anthropometry Child treatments

6 months later

Weight unchanged

Height 123 cm (  3 cm)

What has happened to BMI?


Katie’s anthropometry Child treatments

6 months later

Weight unchanged

Height 123 cm (  3 cm)

BMI 21.8 kg/m2


In what circumstances would you Child treatments

organise further investigations?

If so – what ones?


Further investigations when
Further investigations Child treatments– when?

  • Age: adolescents > younger children

  • Severe obesity (esp. central obesity)

  • High risk family history:

    • 1st and 2nd degree relatives with heart disease, type 2 diabetes (incl. GDM), dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea etc

  • High risk ethnic group:

    • Indian sub-continent, Mediterranean & Middle-Eastern, Maori & Pacific Islander, Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander, probably east Asian

  • Clinical suggestion of co-morbidities


Further investigations what ones
Further investigations Child treatments– what ones?

  • Initial fasting blood tests (others dependent upon results*):

    • Glucose

    • LFTs (ALT, AST)

    • Lipids (TG, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol)

    • Insulin

    • ?TSH???

  • Consider referral for sleep assessment

  • Other investigations that MAY be warranted: OGTT, liver ultrasound


  • When would you refer on? Child treatments


    When to refer on
    When to refer on? Child treatments

    • Will depend upon your expertise and the resources available

    • Paediatrician referral:

      • Severe obesity

      • Presence of co-morbidities

      • Strong family history of co-morbidities

    • Mental health unit referral:

      • Significant psychosocial distress


    When to refer on1
    When to refer on? Child treatments

    • To other health professionals eg

      • Dietitian

      • Nurse (Early Childhood nurse, community nurse)

      • Clinical psychologist

      • Physiotherapist

      • Exercise scientist etc

    • Ideally for all patients, but hampered by cost & availability


    How often should the Child treatments

    patient/parent be seen in follow-up?


    Frequency of follow up
    Frequency of follow-up? Child treatments

    • Frequent follow-up is important in the first few weeks and months in order to aid behaviour change

    • CHW practice:

      • 3 fortnightly consultations,

      • Then progressively less frequent thereafter

    • Consider shared care with other health professionals


    Good for kids
    Good for Kids Child treatments

    • To mainstream healthy eating and physical activity for children (up to 15 yrs) and their families in the Hunter New England region

      • ↓ sweetened drink consumption ↑ non-sweetened drinks

      • ↓ energy dense foods ↑ fruit and vegetables

      • ↑ physical activity (sport, play, leisure)

      • ↓ time spent in small screen recreation (TV, video games)


    Three key messages reinforced in all settings
    Three key messages – reinforced in all settings Child treatments

    • Step 1: Get active, get out and play

      • Kids need at least one hour a day of physical activity

      • Kids should not spend more than 2 hours a day watching TV/computer games

    • Step 2: Drink H20- think water first

      • Kids should drink water instead of juice or soft drinks

    • Step 3: Eat more fruit and vegies

      • Kids should also limit less healthy snack foods




    Television in bedroom
    Television in bedroom Child treatments


    A role for general practice
    A role for General Practice Child treatments

    • Find opportunities to reinforce program messages – build on brand and message recognition

    • Participate in Medicare Healthy Kids Check

    • 97% parents agreed ‘I would feel comfortable with a GP measuring my child’s height and weight, and discussing their weight status with me (letting me know whether he/she is underweight, healthy weight, or above healthy weight)’


    Building on the healthy kids check
    Building on the Healthy Kids Check Child treatments

    • Assess

      • 4 year old weight status

      • Other ages opportunistically

    • Advise

      • Drink H20, think water first

      • Get active, get out and play

      • Eat more fruit and veges

    • Manage/refer

      • those who are above a healthy weight eg HIKUPs


    Healthy kids check
    Healthy Kids Check Child treatments

    • Height and weight are mandatory.

      • Opportunity to assess BMI and introduce it as a tool to monitor growth over time

    • Brief prevention messages at a time when life long behaviours are being defined

      • Use resources to reinforce program messages, relevant for all kids/families

    • Messages for whole family not just the 4 year old

    • Option to manage/refer children ‘above healthy weight’

    • Financial incentive for General Practice


    Resources to help with advice
    Resources to help with advice Child treatments

    • Get Set for Life (Commonwealth parent resource)

    • Good for Kids posters, general program brochures

    • G4K Healthy Families checklist

      • Can use at 4 year old check and opportunistically with other ages

      • 15 child and family behaviours – encourage small changes for whole family



    Healthy kids check overview
    Healthy Kids Check overview Child treatments

    • Weigh & measure child along with other components of check

    • Calculate BMI and plot on BMI chart

    • Show parent chart –’raise the issue’

    • Offer ‘brief advice’ – use handouts (including Healthy Families checklist if not done prior)

    • Provide parent with materials to reinforce

    • If child ‘above healthy weight’ encourage parent to make another appointment to manage weight status or consider referral


    Thank you
    Thank you Child treatments


    Further resources

    BMI for age charts: www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/ Child treatments

    NHMRC Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of O&O: http://www.obesityguidelines.gov.au

    CHW Fact Sheets: http://www.chw.edu.au/parents/factsheets/

    Further Resources


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