Integrated smart nanosensors for space biotechnology applications
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Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications. Toshikazu Nishida Mark E. Law University of Florida NASA Research Briefing September 25, 2002. Introduction. Overview of the Program Test Bed Development Miniaturization of Macro Sensors Nanosensor Development Equipment

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Integrated smart nanosensors for space biotechnology applications

Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications

Toshikazu Nishida

Mark E. Law

University of Florida

NASA Research Briefing

September 25, 2002


Introduction

Introduction

  • Overview of the Program

  • Test Bed Development

  • Miniaturization of Macro Sensors

  • Nanosensor Development

  • Equipment

  • Summary and Conclusions


Overview

Overview

  • Goal: Develop Low Mass, Low Power Sensors

  • Interdisciplinary Work

    • ECE, MSE, Aerospace, Chemical, Civil, Environmental Involved

    • Miniaturize Macroscopic Sensors

    • New Applications for NEM’s Devices


Technical outline

Technical Outline

  • Test Bed Development

    • Water Purification Mazyck(Environmental)

  • Miniaturization of Macro Sensors

    • Cumulative Flow Hatfield(Civil), Annable(Environmental)

    • Gas Sensor Wachsmann (MSE)

  • Nanosensor Development

    • Flow Sensor Sheplak(Aero) and Nishida (ECE)

    • Wide Band gap Sensors Ren (Chem), Chauhan(Chem), Pearton(MSE)

    • Membrane Development Jones(MSE), Law(ECE)

    • Self-Powered Sensors Nishida(ECE), Sheplak(Aero)


Integration of intelligent sensors for water recovery

Integration of Intelligent Sensors for Water Recovery

  • David W. Mazyck, Environmental Engineering Sciences

    • Technical Leader for Water Recovery

    • NASA ES CSTC

  • Objective has been to design a micro-gravity compatible reactor that removes or destroys organics from recycled water

  • Two systems currently under development

    • Magnetically Agitated Photocatalytic Reactor

      • MAPR sponsored by the ES CSTC

    • In-situ Regenerated Activated Carbon

      • IRAC to be presented at 2002 ICES


Project description

Project Description

  • MAPR

    • Magnetic particles are coated with silica and TiO2 to photocatalytically degrade organics

    • Magnetic field fluidizes particles to enhance mixing and destruction rates

  • IRAC

    • Capture organics through traditional adsorption with TiO2 coated activated carbon

    • In-situ regenerate carbon once exhausted with UV light


Research description

Research Description

  • Optimize MAPR for the destruction of target organics

  • Improve IRAC regeneration efficiency

  • Integrate sensors to monitor or control flow, temperature, and specific organics

  • Coupled to Fluidic Sensing, Flow Sensors, Cumulative Flow Sensor, Membrane Development


System schematic

Time-Controlled Sensor Particle Retrieval

Power Control through Sensor

N-S

MAPR

Raman Analyzer

N-S

Water In

UV Lamp

N-S

Smart Photocatalytic Magnetic Particle

UV Regenerator

Chemical/Biological pollutant

Smart Regenerative Sensing System

Smart Sensor particle

System Schematic

NEMs Flow Sensor

Integrated Treatment and Sensing System for Water Purification in Space (MAPR and IRAC interchangeable).


Cumulative flux sensor

Cumulative Flux Sensor

  • Kirk Hatfield, Civil Engineering

  • Mike Annable, Environmental Engineering Sciences

  • Objective is to miniaturize working system for pollutants


Cumulative contaminant flux

Cumulative Contaminant Flux

  • Contaminants in the flow, q are intercepted and retained on the sensor.

  • The mass of contaminant retained, Mc is used to quantify cumulative contaminant mass flux, Jc

Porous Flux meter

Dye intercepted in a flux meter

Contaminant Intercepted


Cumulative water flux

Cumulative Water Flux

  • The flow field leaches a resident tracer from the sensor

  • The mass of tracer remaining, Mr is used to calculate cumulative water flux, q over exposure period, t

ResidentTracer

Porous Flux meter


Gas sensor

Gas Sensor

  • Eric Wachsmann, Materials Science

  • Objective to develop a Miniature Low-Power Integrated CO/CO2/H2/H2O/O2 Sensor for Space Biotechnology Applications


Gas sensor1

Gas Sensor

  • Simple potentiometric sensor is not limited to a specific size and does not require separate reference atmosphere

  • We have already demonstrated approach provides ppm sensitivity for CO and NO and selectivity for NO

  • We will determine selectivity for CO

  • We will determine scalability toward nano-dimensions

  • In future phase we will produce miniature CO/CO2/O2/H2/H2O sensor


Mems sensors for environmental systems

MEMS Sensors for Environmental Systems

  • Dr. Mark Sheplak (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

  • Dr. Toshi Nishida (Electrical and Computer Engineering)

  • Objective

    • Instrumentation-grade MEMS sensors for environmental systems

      • Specifically, MEMS flow sensors for water recovery reactors

        in collaboration with David Mazyk in Environmental Engineering

  • Current Technology

    • Macroscopic liquid flow sensors

      • Turbine

      • Vane

      • Piston

  • Why MEMS Flow Sensor?

    • Smaller weight, size, power

    • Reduced pressure drop


Mems sensors for environmental systems1

MEMS Sensors for Environmental Systems

Flow

  • Floating Element Flow Sensor

    • Direct detection of flow from imparted shear force on floating element

    • Flush mounted in fluidic channel wall for minimal pressure drop

    • Designable for low or high flow rate by adjusting spring force (tethers)

  • Detection Method for Displacement of Floating Element

    • Optical Moirè fringe detected via CCD

Figure 1 - Floating Element Principle

Flow

Bottom

Top

Moirè fringe

Figure 2 - Physical Structure


Wide band gap semiconductor based sensors

Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Based Sensors

Fan Ren, Chemical Engineering

Anuj Chauhan, Chemical Engineering

Steve Pearton, Materials Science and Engineering

Objectives

Fabricate different semiconductor SiC and GaN based electronic devices to investigate the detection limit

Lateral electric fields can be used to separate charged molecules as they flow through a micro/nano fluidic channel.


Background

SiC and GaN based materials are chemically and thermally stable and suitable for high temperature and harsh environment applications

Electronic devices from SiC and GaN are highly sensitive to several gases including hydrogen, carbon mono-oxide and hydrocarbons

Background


Sic schottky diode based gas sensor

SiC Schottky Diode Based Gas Sensor


Schematic of microfluidic device

Schematic of Microfluidic Device

Fluid inlet

Detector

2 mm

Fluid outlet

2 mm

2 cm

electrodes

The electric field concentrates the charged molecules near the wall, where they slow down due to the smaller velocities near the wall. The molecules with smaller diffusion coefficient, i.e., the larger molecules concentrate more near the walls, and thus slow down more. This leads to separation of molecules of different sizes.

Pulse introduced at time=0

1

Pulses at different time

0.8

Concentration

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

Axial Position


Membrane sensor development

Membrane Sensor Development

  • Kevin S. Jones, Materials Science Engineering

  • Mark E. Law, Electrical and Computer Engineering

  • Objective is to develop a single crystal silicon membrane for use in pressure and mass sensors - offer greater reliability and lower noise


Membrane sensor development1

Membrane Sensor Development

Single Crystal Membrane Development

  • Operational Capability:

  • Single Crystal silicon membranes for use as both

    • Integrated Pressure Sensors and

    • Integrated Mechanical Resonators

  • Improved piezo-transducer formation through the use of Ultra-low Energy Ion Implantation and Laser Thermal Processing

  • Estimated Improvement in Dynamic range of 32 to 160 dB

  • Estimate a 10X reduction in the noise floor over bonded and etched back MEMS acoustic sensors

  • Significant long term resonator stability improvement because of the lack of grain creep

Silicon etching

and anneal

can lead to

membrane

Single Crystal membrane

0.75 µm thick

Cavity

0.27mm2 in area

Proposed Technical Approach:

Develop the “Empty Space in Silicon” (ESS) process utilizing focused ion beam etching and reactive ion etching to produce etched holes in single crystal Si

Utilize high temperature annealing in a reducing ambient to flow the silicon over the etched features creating single crystal membranes

Develop ultra shallow junction formation methods using plasma assisted doping on ESS materials for piezoresistive transducers formation


Self powered monitoring of life support systems

Self-Powered Monitoring of Life Support Systems

  • Principal Investigators

    • Dr. Toshi Nishida (Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    • Dr. Khai Ngo (Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    • Dr. Mark Sheplak (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    • Dr. Lou Cattafesta (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    • Dr. Jean Andino (Environmental Engineering Sciences)

  • Motivation

    • Flexible deployment of sensors to monitor health of life support systems requires self-powered wireless sensors

  • Target

    • To design a MEMS vibrational energy harvesting device that enables a self-powered sensor and wireless transmitter for ambient air monitoring and revitalization


Self powered monitoring of life support systems1

Self-Powered Monitoring of Life Support Systems

  • Approach

    • Cantilever structure with a compliant structural silicon/piezoelectric composite beam and an inertial mass at the tip

  • Design

    • Scaling analysis of output power with geometry, force, and material properties

    • Adaptive power circuitry to maximize power flow

  • Tasks

    • Detailed design of the MEMS vibrational micro-generator (Nishida, Cattafesta, Sheplak)

    • Power scaling for integration with electronics (Ngo, Nishida)

    • Design for insertion into existing ambient air monitoring and revitalization technologies (Andino)


Aligned wafer bonding system

Aligned Wafer-Bonding System

  • EVG 620 Double-Sided Lithography System:

    • +/- 0.5 mm front-to-backside wafer alignment and lithography for fabrication of nano- and micro-systems.

    • printing modes: such as soft, hard, vacuum contact and proximity are possible.

    • aligned wafer bond capabilities used for the fabrication of stacked layers in nano- and micro-systems.

  • EVG 501 Aligner Capabilities:

    • precision wafer to wafer alignment processes for silicon-direct, anodic, thermo-compression and pressure bonding.

Precision aligned wafer bonder (EVG 620 / EVG 501)


Connections

Connections

  • Flow Sensor - Water Purification

  • Cumulative Sensors with Membrane MEM’s and Water Purification

  • Potentiometric sensing with wideband gap materials

  • Self-Power Sensor with Membrane Development

  • Self-Power with all sensor technologies


Major 18 month objectives

Major 18 month Objectives

  • Optimize Water Purification System with Integrated Sensors

  • Miniaturize Cumulative Flow and Contaminant Sensor

  • Miniature Low-Power Integrated CO/CO2/H2/H2O/O2 Sensor

  • Demonstrate MEM’s flow sensor in Water Purification Systems

  • Develop Wideband gap materials for sensing applications

  • Develop Novel Single Crystal Membrane Technology for MEM’s

  • Demonstrate Self-Powered Sensor


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Leveraged work offers more immediate payback

  • Seed grants are looking are possible “revolutionary” technologies - long term payoff

  • Good cross linking between tasks - we aim for a real coordinated activity


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