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History Workshop. Standards, Scaffolding and Setting Tasks!. PART ONE. READING, REASONING & REINFORCEMENT. My year so far…changes, changes. Year 11: Significance Unit Sources Unit Family History Internal Assessment – Who Do You think You Are? Coming up: Historical Fiction Unit

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History workshop

History Workshop

Standards, Scaffolding and Setting Tasks!


Part one

PART ONE

READING, REASONING & REINFORCEMENT


My year so far changes changes

My year so far…changes, changes

  • Year 11:

    • Significance Unit

    • Sources Unit

    • Family History

    • Internal Assessment – Who Do You think You Are?

  • Coming up:

    • Historical Fiction Unit

    • Internal Assessment – Blog creation

    • Black Civil Rights

    • The Pacific War


History workshop

  • Year 12

    • Significance Unit

    • Sources Unit

    • Internal Assessment – Protest

    • Mini-Unit Salem Witch Trials – Cause and Effect

    • Race Relations– a comparison btwn NZ and SA

    • Hitler’s Impact on Germany

  • Year 13

    • Significance Unit

    • Sources Units

    • Internal Assessment – Personal Investigation

    • Early Contact – Internal Assessment 3.4

    • Eugenics


Going back to the classroom

Going back to the classroom…

…total reassessment of what I am doing!

  • Questioned my understanding of History teaching and my teaching practice

  • Started with the big question…


What is history

What is History?

  • History is the study of the past, filled with inferences, decisions about significance, interpretation, inclusions and omissions, generally accepted facts and even speculation (Nokes p.55)

    “History is…gossip well told”

    Elbert Hubbard


But if we ask our students

BUT, if we ask our students…

  • Who are we as Historians?

    • Archaeologists

    • Paleontologists

    • Explorers

  • What we do as Historians

    • Surf the net

    • Watch History Channel

    • Listen to lectures


Historical knowledge vs historical literacies

Historical knowledge vs historical literacies

“A historical literate person knows how to evaluate the

quality of the information, rather than just regurgitate it

on a test…”

Sam Wineburg, Margaret Jacks Professor of Education and History,

Stanford University, USA


Importance of evidence

Importance of Evidence

  • “When students start operating with the concept of evidence as something inferential and view eyewitnesses as providing evidence, not ‘handing down’ history, then History will resume again” (Lee)

  • Traditional History Classroom

    • bears no resemblance to what professional historians do

    • radically different work to that of an historian

    • up until 2011 we continued this tradition


What we know

What we know…

  • Students struggle when not supported using sources

  • Students struggle with contradictions

  • Students struggle with reading


And what are the standards asking our students to do

…and what are the standards asking our students to do?

  • Read critically

  • Think historically

  • Identify, collect and interpret sources of information

  • Differentiate between fact and opinion

  • Consider multiple perspectives

  • Interrogate historical data

  • Use evidence to support interpretations / generalisations

  • Write up their findings – in reports, essays, blogs etc

  • Determine and explain significance


So how do we support them in this

So, how do we support them in this?

Students need:

  • to have the opportunity to work with Primary and Secondary Sources

  • to be given feedback and feedforward on their historical thinking

  • Experience tells us:

    • by writing more we get better writers

    • so it follows that more work with sources leads to better historical thinkers…


Historical literacies what is it

Historical Literacies – what is it?

  • Reading Jeffrey Nokes pp30 – 32


How do we

How do we….

…change from seeing evidence such as cartoons etc [not just] as a means of transmitting or receiving information?

  • How do we teach students to:

    • Review

    • Critique

    • Question

    • Consider the sources - annotate

    • Synthesize the message with other sources?


Four ways to encourage this

Four ways to encourage this

  • Close reading

  • Metacognition

  • Vocabulary and Literacy

  • Before, During and After Reading Strategies


Close reading

Close Reading

  • Skim initially

  • Slow down; pause and reflect; annotate

  • Refer to the author

  • Reread for detail

  • Question the text

  • Clarify

  • Consider the context of source


Metacognition a

Metacognition (a)

  • Good readers reflect on reading and thinking process

  • Pay attention to what they understand and notice when this breaks down

  • Need to be taught how to do this and what to do when it fails:

    • Re read

    • Question

    • Seek additional sources

    • Discuss

    • Focus on parts

  • Mini-Writes – Reading 2


History workshop

Metacognition (b)

  • One strategy to cover a variety of skills = mini-writes

    • Testing metacognition:

      • What is the most important idea that was generated in today’s discussion?

      • Explain this concept in your own words

      • How do you think that this issue is viewed by those involved in it?

      • What questions do you have?

  • Gives insight into thought processes

  • Non-threatening

  • Invaluable feedback and feed forward for students


Vocabulary and literacy

Vocabulary and Literacy

  • Develop a rich vocabulary

  • Knowledge of word meanings

  • History related vocab/text that we need to define

  • How?

    • Discussion


Before during and after reading strategies 1

Before, During and After reading strategies (1)

BEFORE

  • Preview the text – activating background knowledge

  • Establish a purpose for reading – make prediction


Before during and after reading strategies 2

Before, During and After reading strategies (2)

DURING

  • Vary reading speed

  • Monitor comprehension

  • Summarise

  • Make inferences

  • Seek clarification

  • Ask questions

  • Make and verify predictions


Before during after reading strategies 3

Before, During, After reading strategies (3)

AFTER

  • Summarise

  • Continue to ask questions

  • Discuss


Four resources model

Four resources model

1. Code breakers

2. Meaning makers

3. Text user

4. Text critic

  • What is the role?

  • What do they need to be

  • able to do?

  • How can we help as history

  • teachers?

  • Are there any specific

  • strategies we can use?


Summary to date

Summary – to date

  • Main ideas so far…


Explicit strategy instruction

Explicit strategy instruction

  • Provide training, practice and support

  • Four stages:

    • Direct instruction

    • Modeling

    • Guided practice

    • Independent practice


History workshop

Reading Like a Historian: A Document- Based History Curriculum Intervention in

Urban High Schools

Reisman p91


Implicit strategy instruction

Implicit strategy instruction

  • Assignment requiring students to engage – teacher explains it first

  • Creation of a study guide prior to analysing a cartoon

    • Brief description of source

    • List the images

    • List symbols etc

  • Walking students through process of analysis


Reading

Reading

  • Building Students’ Historical Literacies: Learning to Read and Reason with Historical Texts and Evidence

    Jeffery D. Nokes, Routledge 2013 pp 65 – 81

    Additional web help here:

    Historical Literacies


So what

So what?

  • These strategies and ideas all provide support in developing students who can:

    • Think

    • Reason

    • Source

    • Corroborate

    • Challenge

    • Analyse

    • Evaluate

      Do all the things our standards are asking from 3.1 – 3.6


Part two

PART TWO

Standards, Scaffolding and Setting Tasks!


Analysis of as91346 3 3

Analysis of AS91346 (3.3)

  • Handout

  • Unpacking of standard done last year

  • Immediate Q & A


Revisit the must do s 1

Revisit the “must do’s” (1)

  • Analyse the evidence

  • Use historians skills:

    • Close reading

    • Comprehension

    • Extracting meaning


Must do s 2

“must do’s” (2)

  • Understand historical concepts – this is the focus:

    • Perspectives - mutiple

    • Relationship of the past to the present

    • Reliability and usefulness – not linked and unreliable sources can be useful

    • Bias (personal, unconscious) or propaganda (public intent and deliberate attempt to promote a view & persuade agreement)

    • Continuity and change

    • Intent and motivation

    • Cause and effect

    • Specific and generalised - conclusions

    • Influences and significance

    • Contingency – counterfactuals, the “what-Ifs”


Exemplars

Exemplars

  • Four questions

  • Paragraph style answers

  • Analysing concepts:

    • Perspectives – positive and negative

    • Cause and effect - most significant (one)

    • Reliability

    • Usefulness

  • Must answer ALL questions


From the schedule 3 3

From the Schedule – 3.3

  • Responses should be written in paragraph form and marked holistically according to depth of answer and depth of analytical insight not the range, or amount, of evidence. The expectations at Merit and Excellence level need to be realistic with the markers remaining aware that these are Year 13 candidates providing an understanding of an unfamiliar context. Therefore markers need to interpret these terms in the following manner:

  • Thorough – willing to point to a weight of evidence from a range of sources; presenting analysis based on close and careful reading of a source or sources; drawing attention to more than the immediately obvious.

  • Discernment – involves ‘reading between the lines’ to draw conclusions that go beyond the immediately obvious, demonstrating a high degree of engagement with the evidence.


Strategies for teaching 3 3

Strategies for teaching 3.3

  • Think Alouds from 2012

  • Four Reads – Teaching History

  • Sources Unit in History Teacher Aotearoa

  • Adapted SeixasActivities:

    • I Left a Trace

    • Hook, Line and Linker

    • Decoding an image – Image Detective

    • Corroboration


Scottish missionary confronted by m ori and bay of islands

Scottish Missionary confronted by Māori and Bay of Islands


Analysis of as91348 3 5

Analysis of AS91348 (3.5)

  • Handout

  • Unpacking of standard done last year

  • Immediate Q & A


Revisit the must do s

Revisit the “must do’s”

  • Define clearly the historical event in the introduction

  • Must state links between the cause and the event – establishing the causal relationship


Revisit the must do s1

Revisit the “must do’s”

  • Choose the event carefully, needs to be specific and contained

    • Causes leading to and consequences following need to be broad and significant

    • Concept of significance and criteria provided in the standard are of use for evaluating the consequences


Significance vs significance to new zealanders

Significance vs Significance to New Zealanders

  • Concept of Significance – teaching point

    • Counsell

    • Partington

    • Phillips

  • As opposed to ‘of significance to New Zealanders’ which is in the internal standards

  • See History Teacher, Aotearoa for unit on teaching significance

  • Ideas and strategies for teaching significance here


Posters

Posters


What are they looking for

What are they looking for…

  • A clear definition of the significanthistorical event in the introduction

  • Establishment and evaluation ofhistorical causation with well-considered judgments.

    • Evaluate the causes and consequences

    • Outlining immediate and underlying causes and short and long term consequences

    • Prioritising the causes and consequences, justifying the relative significance – this was more important because…

    • Demonstrate understanding of complexity of causes and consequences


What does the schedule tell us

What does the Schedule tell us?

  • Achieved:

    • Explained two causes

    • Demonstrated understanding of short and long term relationship which links to the cause of event

    • Explained two consequences

    • Demonstrated understanding of short and long term consequences of the event


Exemplars1

Exemplars

  • Merit

    • Evaluated at least two of the causes

    • Weighed up the importance of each and established the primacy of one over the other

    • Evaluated two consequences

    • Weighed up the importance of each and established the primacy of one over the other


Exemplars2

Exemplars

  • Excellence

    • Evaluated at least two causes

    • Weighed up the importance of each and established the primacy of one over the other

    • Established a persuasive argument supported by evidence reflecting the complexity of the causal relationship

    • Evaluated at least two consequences

    • Weighed up the importance of each and established the primacy of one over the other

    • Established a persuasive argument supported by evidence reflecting the complexity of each consequence


Strategies for teaching

Strategies for teaching

Thinking About Cause and Consequence, Seixas

and Morton

  • Jenga

  • What Broke Alphonse’s Back - handout

  • How I Got Here – Peter Seixas

  • Champlain and Change


Diamond nine early contact in nz

Diamond Nine: Early Contact in NZ

Hell Hole of the Pacific

Traders

Sealers and Whalers

Influence of guns and grog

disease

Colonialism

Imperialism

HumanitarianMovement


Paragraph writing

Paragraph Writing

  • Skill that needs to be explicitly taught, various methods

    • topic sentence

    • explain the events and actions using detailed supporting evidence

    • clearly describe the causal relationship to the main event

  • TIE, TEE, SEE etc etc


Southteach tod

SouthTeach TOD

  • Concept of Causation covered at latest SouthTeach PLD Day

  • Handouts from this are on the stick

  • Ideas for department unpacking – Progress in Causation using the Externals

  • Ideas for teaching the concept – Causation – Inquiries and Activities


Analysis of as91349 3 6

Analysis of AS91349 (3.6)

  • Handout – from NZHTA Members Area

  • Unpacked these last year

  • Immediate Q & A


What are they looking for1

What are they looking for…

  • A significant historical trend

    • A significant historical trend is understood to be a series of related events that has a range of causes and that illustrates significant social, political, cultural, environmental or economic changes and continuities over a period of time.

  • Force(s) influencing a trend

  • Presenting well considered judgements….


  • Must do s

    MUST DO’s

    • Define clearly the historical trend in the introduction

    • Must examine the force(s) that influenced the event

      • Force = idea, concept, condition promoting social, economic or political etc change

    • Present well considered judgments demonstrating their understanding of the trend – change and continuity


    What does the schedule tell us1

    What does the Schedule tell us?

    • Achieved:

      • Identified and explained two forces that influenced a trend

      • Forces need to be linked to the trend

      • Identified two of changes that resulted from the influence of these forces

      • Use supporting evidence


    What does the schedule tell us2

    What does the Schedule tell us?

    • Merit:

      • forces that promote change are identified and explained

      • Used detailed evidence to explain ideas

      • Changes that result from the forces are measured as to their relative importance in establishing complex patterns of change and continuities


    What does the schedule tell us3

    What does the Schedule tell us?

    • Excellence:

      • Forces that promote change are identified and evaluated

      • Use detailed supporting evidence

      • Changes that result from the forces are measured as to their relative importance in establishing complex patterns of change and continuities


    Exemplar

    Exemplar

    • Topics:

      • Development of Pastoralism in New Zealand

      • Change in Māori Society pre 1840

      • Outbreak of the Cold War

      • Colonisation


    Explanatory note 4

    Explanatory Note 4

    TREND OVER TIME

    • Migration, eg British migration to New Zealand in the 19th Century: what force(s) in Britain influenced this migration, what changes and continuities occurred as a result of this in Britain and for Māori and Pakeha in New Zealand?

    • The trend of rebellion against autocracy in Russia: what force(s) influenced the rebellion, what changes and continuities occurred as a result of the rebellion in Russia?

    • Racism, eg Anti-Chinese racism in New Zealand: what force(s) influenced racism, what changes and continuities occurred as a result of the racism in New Zealand?

    • Changing roles of women, eg in England 1870 to 1930: what force(s) influenced changes in women’s roles, what changes and continuities occurred as a result of this trend?


    Example eugenics

    Example: Eugenics

    • Social Engineering, eg Eugenics in New Zealand in the 19th Century: what force(s) in influenced eugenics, what changes and continuities occurred as a result of this in for Māori and Pakeha in New Zealand?

    • Examine the forces influencing the trend – political, international, social

      • Eugenics Movement from Great Britain

      • Social - concerns of maternal mortality and infant mortality and malnutrition / role of church / health

      • Political - building society and population

      • Economic – having a strong workforce – relate to child health

      • Significant change in NZ society at the time - impacts

      • Continuity – survival of the fittest, Plunket Society today, lack of nutrition, diabetes, TB etc


    What about you

    What about you?

    • Trend: ___________________________

    • Describe it in the context of ________________________

    • Change:

    • Examine the forces influencing the trend – political, international, social

      • ______________________________________

      • _____________________________________________________

    • Change: _________________________________________

    • Continuity: ________________________________________


    Strategies

    Strategies

    • Christine Counsell – 20 strategies for beginning to teach concept

      • Categorising activities

      • Timelines

      • Language activities

      • Use enquiry questions

      • Card sorting Activities

      • Reading debates

    • What would you use?


    Possible questions to consider using

    Possible questions to consider using

    • What has changed?

    • What has stayed the same?

    • Which of the changes happened most quickly?

    • Which changes happened most slowly?

    • Is there an event that seems to change everything else after it? Is it a ‘turning point’?


    Consider

    Consider…

    • What were the social/political/economic force(s) that precipitated _______________________?

    • What were the consequences of this on ___________?

      e.g. What were the social/political/economic force(s) that precipitated early contact? What were the consequences for the colonised and colonisers?

      • What are the changes over time?

      • Does it differ from place to place?


    Helpful sentence starters

    Helpful sentence starters

    • One thing that has stayed the same…

    • This is a major theme because…

    • When all countries undertaking…are looked at…

    • One event that changed everything that followed…

    • This is a turning point because…

    • One major cause of change is…


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