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Invasive Species. What are they? Why are they important? What can we do about them?. Use mouse button to go to the next slide. What is an Invasive Species?. Invasive Species. An "invasive species" is defined as a species that is non–native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration

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Invasive Species

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Invasive species l.jpg

Invasive Species

What are they?

Why are they important?

What can we do about them?

Use mouse button to go to the next slide


What is an invasive species l.jpg

What is an Invasive Species?

Invasive Species

  • An "invasive species" is defined as a species that is

  • non–native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration

  • and

  • 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.


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Which Invasive Species Affect Us?

Invasive Species

  • We encounter invasive species every day, and most are benign or beneficial.

  • Invasive species affecting us in Arkansas include plants and animals.

  • Some examples of common invasive species include:


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Examples of insects

Invasive Species

Red Imported Fire Ant

USDA APHIS PPQ Archives, USDA APHIS, www.forestryimages.org

Asian Tiger mosquito

Susan Ellis, www.forestryimages.org


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Invasive Species

nutria

starling

Lee Karney, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, www.forestryimages.org

www.scsc.k12.ar.us

zebra mussel

U.S. Geological Survey Archives, U.S. Geological Survey, www.forestryimages.org


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Examples of plants

Invasive Species

kudzu

James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org

Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus)

David J. Moorhead, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org


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Examples of microbes

Invasive Species

West Nile Virus, 2005

As an example of spread of invasive species, consider that West Nile Virus spread across the US in only a few years after appearing first in 1999.


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There are approximately 4,000 exotic plant species and 2,300 non-native animal species in the US.A few cause problems: just 79 species caused $97 billion in direct economic losses in the US during 1906-1991.Source: America’s Least Wanted, The Nature Conservancy 1996.

Invasive Species


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Invasive species can cause ecological damage by

Invasive Species

  • Altering ecosystem physical or chemical properties

  • Depleting native wildlife by preying on them or by niche competition

  • Setting off cascading biological changes in the systems they invade


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Chestnut blight

Some invasive species can cause huge ecological and economic impacts.

American Chestnut – lost to an invasive species, chestnut blight

Historic range of American chestnut


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Examples of established invasive species in forests: insects and diseases

Invasive Species

Chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, balsam wooly adelgid, hemlock wooly adelgid, pecan weevil, . . .


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Examples of established invasive species in forests: plants

Invasive Species

Kudzu, Japanese honeysuckle, princesstree, privets, Tree–of–Heaven, mimosa, Chinaberry, English ivy, Nepalese browntop, bamboos, giant reed, lespedezas, non–native wisterias, ...


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Examples of threatening invasive species in forests:

Invasive Species

  • Insects

  • Diseases

  • Plants


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Asian Longhorned Beetle

Invasive Species

Donald Duerr, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org

Thomas B. Denholm, New Jersey Department of Agriculture, www.forestryimages.org


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ALB risk map

Invasive Species


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Gypsy Moth

Invasive Species

USDA APHIS PPQ Archives, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Archives, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, www.forestryimages.org


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Gypsy Moth

Invasive Species

Gypsy Moth damage

Mark Robinson, forestryimages.org


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Emerald Ash Borer

Invasive Species

David Cappaert, , www.forestryimages.org

Andrew J. Storer, MI Tech. University

James W. Smith, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org


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European Wood Wasp

Invasive Species

William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, www.forestryimages.org

Stanislaw Kinelski, , www.forestryimages.org


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Pine Shoot Beetle

Invasive Species

orth Central Research Station Forestry Science Laboratory


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Formosan Termite

Invasive Species

Gerald J. Lenhard, , www.forestryimages.org


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Kudzu

Invasive Species

David J. Moorhead, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org

James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org


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Kudzu infestation

John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, www.forestryimages.org


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Kudzu infestation

Kudzu infestation

Kerry Britton, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org


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Chinese Wisteria

Invasive Species

James R. Allison, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, www.forestryimages.org

Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org


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Cogongrass

Invasive Species

Wilson Faircloth, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org

G. Keith Douce, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org

showing off-center mid-vein


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Cogongrass rhizomes

Cogongrass rhizomes

Craig Ramsey, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org


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Cogongrass infestation

Cogongrass

infestation

Wilson Faircloth, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org

Note the distinctive circular infestations in the planted stand.

Craig Ramsey, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org


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Chinese Tallow (popcorn tree)

Invasive Species

James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org

Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org


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AR Champion Chinese Tallow: Located in Des Arc, has diameter 10.7 inches, height 39 feet and crown spread 32 feet.

University of Arkansas Extension Service


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Chinese Tallow infestation


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Callery Pear

Invasive Species

Chuck Bargeron, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org

Dan Tenaglia, www.missouriplants.com, www.forestryimages.org


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Callery pear blooming

Britt Slattery, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, www.forestryimages.org


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Chinese Privet / European Privet

Invasive Species

Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org

James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org


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Privet infestation

James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org


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Tropical Soda Apple

Invasive Species

Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org

J. Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, www.forestryimages.org

J. Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, www.forestryimages.org


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Tropical Soda Apple

Invasive Species

James Rollins, , www.forestryimages.org


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The Dirty Dozen

Invasive Species

Zebra Mussel

Purple Loosestrife

Flathead Catfish

Tamarisk

Rosy Wolfsnail

Leafy Spurge

Green Crab

Hydrilla

Balsam Wooly Adelgid

Miconia

Chinese Tallow

Brown Tree Snake

Source: America’s Least Wanted, The Nature Conservancy 1996.


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The Dirty Dozenin Arkansas

Invasive Species

Zebra Mussel

Purple Loosestrife

Flathead Catfish

Tamarisk

Rosy Wolfsnail

Leafy Spurge

Green Crab

Hydrilla

Balsam Wooly Adelgid

Miconia

Chinese Tallow

Brown Tree Snake

Yellow: found in Arkansas; Blue: in adjacent states. Source: America’s Least Wanted, The Nature Conservancy 1996.


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Action: national and state

Invasive Species

National Invasive Species Council

USDA:

APHIS

USFS

NRCS

Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds

National Park Service

US Fish & Wildlife Service

The Nature Conservancy

Exotic Plant Pest Councils

State forestry agencies

Regional Tropical Soda Apple Task Force

AR State Plant Board


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Action: us

Invasive Species

  • Awareness: what are the most threatening pests?

  • Identification: be able to identify invasive species

  • Control: know where to get information on control

  • Education: teach others

  • Individual actions / behaviors: especially, don’t help invasive species spread!


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Resources:

Invasive Species

Books, Field Guides, and other materials:

"Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests“

Websites:

www.invasivespecies.gov

www.invasive.org

tncweeds.ucdavis.edu


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