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Formation, Stratification, and Transition of Peoples. Ron Rowland Harvest Information System. Peoples Definition. What is a people?. Peoples Definition “What is a People?”. “The persons comprising a community or tribe or race or nation.” Oxford Dictionary, 1977. “Looking at the lists.”

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Formation stratification and transition of peoples

Formation, Stratification, and Transition of Peoples.

Ron Rowland

Harvest Information System


Peoples definition

Peoples Definition

What is a people?


Peoples definition what is a people

Peoples Definition “What is a People?”

“The persons comprising a community or tribe or race or nation.”

Oxford Dictionary, 1977

  • “Looking at the lists.”

    • Definitions are not normally used.

    • The challenge of distinguishing “Apples” and “Oranges”


Peoples definition1

Peoples Definition

  • “Stranger Value” and “Participant Value”

    • Taking Pictures

    • Observer View

    • Participant View


Peoples definition an observer view descriptors factors that tend to unite or divide

Peoples Definition – An Observer ViewDescriptors: factors that tend to unite or divide.

Five Descriptors

  • Geo-Political (ROG)

    Registry of Geographic Divisions

  • Geo-Spatial (ROH)

    Registry of Habitats

  • Ethno-Linguistic (ROL)

    Registry of Languages

  • Ethno-Cultural (ROP)

    Registry of Peoples

  • Ethno-Religious (ROR)

    Registry of Religions

People

Language

Religion

Peoples

Country

Place


Peoples definition a participant view how do i go about joining the group

Peoples Definition – A Participant ViewHow do I go aboutjoining the group?

Presenting Question Personal Peoples


Peoples definition a participant view

Peoples Definition – A Participant View

Peoples Definition:

  • Self-Perception

    • The ‘we’ factor – the sense of belonging and identity

  • Territoriality

    • The practice of community is, in part, dependant upon nearness.

  • Social Indicators

    • Those factors in the social system which give a sense of ‘us’, in contrast to ‘them’.


Peoples definition a participant view1

Peoples Definition – A Participant View

Identity: the “we” factor.

  • The ‘we’ factor – the sense of belonging and identity

  • What is the primary group to which the people feel that they belong?

    • Current – not Historic

    • Pragmatic – not Formal


Peoples definition a participant view2

Peoples Definition – A Participant View

  • Territoriality

    • The practice of community is, in part, dependant upon nearness.

    • Significant factor in considerations of migration and ‘Diaspora.


Peoples definition a participant view3

Peoples Definition – A Participant View

  • Social Indicators

    • Those factors in the social system which give a sense of ‘us’, in contrast to ‘them’.

    • They vary from people to people.

    • E.g. Marriage or burial customs

      Prohibited foods

      Dress/physical ornament

      Building structures

      Conversational forms


Peoples definition summary

Peoples Definition – Summary

  • The definition of a people includes both ‘Observer’ and ‘Participant understanding.

  • The ‘Observer’ view gives you the ‘hard, cold facts’ of the situation.

  • The ‘Participant’ view confirms, denies, or modifies – based on what the people themselves think.


Peoples formational patterns

Peoples Formational Patterns

How are peoples formed?


Formational patterns how are peoples formed

Formational Patterns.How are Peoples formed?

  • SE Single Ethnic

  • ME Multi-Ethnic

  • SR Socio-Religious

  • SP Socio-Political

    These four formational patterns account, to my knowledge, for all the major ‘peoples’ of the world.

    I have chosen to avoid classification in HIS based upon social and socio-economic classes, as these are not exclusive (though often excluding), nor are they permanent. We will discuss this again under “Stratification”.


Peoples definition an observer view

Peoples Definition: An ‘Observer’ View

Peoples Formational Patterns:

  • Single Ethnic:

    • Single culture - Single language.

  • Multi-Ethnic:

    • Single language – Different Cultures.

  • Socio-Religious:

    • Single Culture – Different Languages.

  • Socio-Political:

    • National or Regional Language and Culture

    • Composite in nature


Formational patterns how are peoples formed1

Formational Patterns.How are Peoples formed?

  • SE Single Ethnic

    This is where the people of a single culture speak a single language.

    It is, by far, the most frequent formational pattern. About 73% in HIS.

    It has been the primary focus for many agencies in their outreach to unevangelized peoples.


Formational patterns how are peoples formed2

Formational Patterns.How are Peoples formed?

  • ME Multi-Ethnic

    This is where the people speak a single language, but recognize different cultural backgrounds. It is common in North Africa and East Africa, but is not exclusive to these areas. Less than 1% in HIS.

    Typically, a large group from a Single Culture converts to Islam, and adopts another language for religious purposes (e.g. Hassaniya Arabic has become the language of many such groups).

    They join, sometimes, with those from other ethnic backgrounds because of common experience of religion and language.

    Singly, or together, they begin to recognize themselves as a ‘different’ people.


Formational patterns how are peoples formed3

Formational Patterns.How are Peoples formed?

  • SR Socio-Religious

    This is where the people recognize themselves as a “community” [samudaya], or “people”, based upon religious practices (such as caste), even though they may speak different languages in different locations.

    This is very common in India, and South Asia, but occurs elsewhere also. About 23% in HIS.

    The complexity of the India situation is illustrated by the fact that we are working with a set of data containing ca. 200,000 entries, showing

    Peoples (Communities),

    Peoples Divisions (Sub-Groups)

    Peoples Segments (Sub-Sub_Groups)

    By Country, State, and District

    This data is now being matched with Language Use, and already several thousand additional entries have been generated.


Sr socio religious adi of india

SR Socio-Religious – Adi of India

15 People Divisions, in 1 State, speaking 15 Ingroup Languages, and 21 different Intergroup Languages


Sr socio religious bhand of india

SR Socio-Religious –Bhand of India

Bhand: 1 People Division; 12 Languages, in 14 States, plus Nepal and Pakistan


Formational patterns how are peoples formed4

Formational Patterns.How are Peoples formed?

SP Socio-Political

This is where the people recognize themselves as a people, based upon socio-political criteria.

It is commonly the case with national language speakers.

They cannot be classed only by language

English-speaking Americans are a very different ‘people’ from the English-Speaking British, or Canadians, or Australians.

Cultural backgrounds are varied, and in many cases are almost forgotten.

What is left is a shared sense of being, English, or American, or French, or Chinese, etc.


Sp socio political

SP Socio-Political

  • “I’m proud to be an American . . .”

    • Non-Hispanic Whites (72%)

    • African American (12%)

    • Hispanics (11%)

      • Hispanic Black

      • Hispanic White

    • Asians & Pacific Islanders (4%)

    • American Indians (1%)

      • US Census Bureau


Implications of the four formation patterns

Implications of the Four Formation Patterns:

  • We now have a formal means of tracking the ‘formation’ of new peoples.

  • With better understanding, we can now ‘fit’ them into a hierarchical system.

    • People Families

    • People Clusters

    • Peoples

    • People Divisions

    • People Segments

More when we look at Peoples In Transition

More when we look at the Registry of Peoples


Peoples in society stratification

Peoples In Society: Stratification

“Towards A Stratification Model”


Stratification of what here are just some of the phrases that occupy current discussions

Gender Stratification

Generational Stratification

Race Stratification

Social Stratification

Economic Stratification

Religious Stratification

Intellectual Stratification

Aesthetic Stratification

Recreational Stratification

Educational Stratification

Values Stratification

Measured Intelligence

Wealth/Poverty Levels

Employment Status

Occupational Status

Occupational Position

Work Status

Social Role

Sexual Orientation

Values Orientation

Social Origins

Family Background

Stratification: Of What?Here are just some of the phrases that occupy current discussions:


Peoples in society stratification1

Peoples In Society: Stratification

“The unequal rights and perquisites of different positions in a society”

Davis & Moore

  • Key Terms:

  • Hierarchy

  • Core & Periphery

  • Spheres of Influence

  • Mobility

  • Ranking

MOBILITY

Spheres

Of

Influence

Core

Periphery

Hierarchy/Ranking


Stratification some common phrases

Stratification: Some Common Phrases

  • Hierarchy:

    • Which hierarchy are we talking about? There are many different culturally relevant hierarchies reflected in their lives.

  • Ranking:

    • Where are the group we are considering ranked on the hierarchy?

    • Where, in their culture, do they place this group?

  • Mobility:

    • What are the expectations of mobility for the people in this group?

    • What is the appropriate level for cross-cultural missionary ‘entrance’, in terms of witness and impact?

  • Core/Periphery

    • Is the group I am considering viewed as at the core, or at the periphery, within this culture?

  • Spheres of influence:

    • What is the relationship, in their culture, with other hierarchies or spheres of influence?


Peoples in society stratification2

Peoples In Society: Stratification

Personality Types

Values Orientations

4 Interlocking Spheres of Influence

Behavioral Spheres

Roles and Occupations

Especially important in a cross-cultural context, that we understand the dynamics.


Peoples in society stratification3

Peoples In Society: Stratification

Personality Types

Values Orientations

Lawyers, Teachers

Taxi-Drivers, Housewives

Manual Workers, Dockers Secretaries, Writers

Roles and Occupations

Behavioral Spheres


Peoples in society stratification4

Peoples In Society: Stratification

Personality Types

Values Orientations

Social & Economic Class

Religious Position

Intellectual – Aesthetic

Recreational Position

Roles and Occupations

Behavioral Spheres


Peoples in society stratification5

Peoples In Society: Stratification

Personality Types

Values Orientations

  • Human Nature

    • Man-Nature

      • Time

        • Acitivity

          • Relational

Behavioral Spheres

Social Roles


Stratification values orientations

Stratification: Values Orientations

Values Orientations

From an Instrument devised by Dave Ripley, of Ethnic America Project; based on work by Kluckholn and Strodtbeck: “Variations in Value Orientations”

  • Human Nature

  • Man-Nature

  • Time

  • Activity

  • Relational

Good Neutral Evil

Passive Interactive Active

Past Present Future

Being Being In Becoming Doing

Collaterality Lineality Individualism


Peoples in society stratification6

Peoples In Society: Stratification

Individuality &

Personality Types

Values Orientations

Myers Briggs Personality Types

Gender

Age Levels

Sexual Orientation

Behavioral Spheres

Social Roles


Summary

Summary

  • There appears to be a need for a model to be developed to guide those engaging in Stratificational Ministry, especially in a cross-cultural setting.


Peoples in transition

Peoples In Transition

An on-going search for understanding,

and for the development of helpful tools.


Peoples in transition1

Peoples In Transition

Transition:

  • “Passage from one state, stage, subject, or place to another.”

  • “A movement, development, or evolution from one form, stage, or style to another.”

    WWWebster Dictionary


Peoples in transition2

Peoples In Transition

Transition:

  • Again, we seek to use an ‘observer’ approach, and a ‘participant’ approach.

  • Let’s look first at an instrument for ‘tracking’ transition from an observer’s viewpoint.


Peoples in transition3

Peoples In Transition

Tracking:

  • ROG: Country.

  • ROH: Place.

  • ROP: People.

  • ROL: Language.

  • ROR: Religion.

People

Language

Religion

Country

Place


Peoples transition an observer view

Peoples Transition – An ‘Observer’ View

Brazil: Kamba People of Matto Grosso do Sul – BR0POR09

ROG: BR

ROG: BL

ROH: BR14MGS

ROH: Unknown

ROP: UNCQKZ

ROP: BR0POR

ROL: QKZ

ROL: POR

ROR: TR

ROR: CH

2000 in ethnic group. Came from Bolivia to Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul. Language extinct; all now speak Portuguese.


Peoples transition an observer view1

Peoples Transition – An ‘Observer’ View

USA: Asante People of Dallas - US0ENG02TWS

ROG: US

ROG: GH

ROH: USADAL

ROH: GHAOBO

ROP: NGCTWS

ROP: US0ENG02TWS

ROL: TWS

ROL: ENG

ROR: TR

ROR: CH

Asante-Twi speaking Akan People from Obowasi, Ghana, who moved to Dallas, Texas, and are bi-lingual in English.


Peoples transition a church planting strategy a generational approach

Peoples Transition: A Church Planting Strategy(A Generational Approach)


Peoples in transition4

Peoples In Transition

Transition:

  • Now, we seek to use a ‘participant’ approach.

  • Let’s look at the different ways in which peoples ‘cope’ with transition.


Peoples definition a participant view4

Peoples Definition: A ‘Participant’ View

Peoples Definition:

  • Self-Perception

    • The ‘we’ factor – the sense of belonging and identity

  • Territoriality

    • The practice of community is, in part, dependant upon nearness.

  • Social Indicators

    • Those factors in the social system which give a sense of ‘us’, in contrast to ‘them’.


Peoples transition a participant view

Peoples Transition: A ‘Participant’ View

Transition:

  • Territoriality

  • Self-Perception

  • Social Indicators

Cohesion Affirming the ‘we’ feeling through retention of Social Identifiers.

Assimilation Accepting new ‘we’ feeling and Social Indicators

Association Modifying the ‘we’ feeling through change of Social Identifiers.


Peoples transition a participant view1

Peoples Transition: A ‘Participant’ View

Assimilation:

  • With the change of ‘territoriality’ comes a change of self-identity and acceptance of social identifiers

  • Typically a move towards a ‘socio-political’ situation, where with a change of territoriality, there is an embracing of the national or regional culture and language.

  • There are stages of assimilation, but the process is on-going, and the end result is a merging with the ‘dominant’ people.


Peoples transition a participant view2

Peoples Transition: A ‘Participant’ View

Cohesion:

  • With a change of territoriality comes a determination to maintain self-identity.

  • This is sought through redefined territoriality; and a retention of, and a strong emphasis on, traditional Social Identifiers.

  • A certain degree of multiculturalism and bilingualism is inevitable, leading to a ‘new’ people identity. Historical examples: Mennonites and Hutterites.


Peoples transition a participant view3

Peoples Transition: A ‘Participant’ View

Association:

  • With a change of territoriality, comes a desire for, or acceptance of, a modified assimilation to a less specific, or ‘collective’, group.

  • There is an acceptance of a modified self-identity and Social Indicators, and a willingness to be seen by others as belonging to this ‘collective’ group. Historical examples: ‘Asians’, or ‘Hispanics’, or ‘Arabs’.

  • Again, the result is a new ‘people’, or ‘people grouping’ classification.


Peoples transition a participant view4

Peoples Transition: A ‘Participant’ View

So:

  • Assimilation leads to a merging with another people, and progressive loss of separate people identity.

  • Cohesion leads to the formation of a new, though related, people identity.

  • Association leads to the formation of a different level of people grouping.


Formation stratification and transition of peoples

The End…


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