The Mind-Body Relation. Dualism : human beings are composed of a material body and an immaterial mind which are distinct from each other (Descartes) Problems: interaction? freedom? other minds?
The Mind-Body Relation
Dualism: human beings are composed of a material body and an immaterial mind which are distinct from each other (Descartes)
Problems: interaction? freedom? other minds?
Proposed answers: parallelism (Leibniz), occasionalism (Malebranche)
Reductive materialism: all so-called mental actions are really nothing more than measurable physical processes (Hobbes)
Contemporary Materialist Theories
Mind-Brain (Identity) Theory: thoughts and states of consciousness are simply brain states
Problem: brain states and consciousness have different (e.g., spatial) properties
Behaviorism: to have a mind is to behave or be disposed to behave in certain ways
Functionalism: mental states are patterned associations of sensory stimuli and behaviors
Eliminative Materialism: we should replace terms like “thought” with material expressions
The Turing Test
If there is no difference between the performances of a computer and a human being, the computer can be said to think
Objection: thinking or understanding involves more than following a program or manipulating symbols according to rules; it involves awareness or consciousness of what following the program means (Searle)