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Tissue. Chapter 4. Link. Tissues. Tissue: 4 Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous. http://www.stegen.k12.mo.us/ tchrpges / sghs / ksulkowski /images/20_Simple_Columnar_Epithelial_Tissue.jpg. Match Tissue Type to Function. Epithelial Connective Nervous Muscle.

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Tissue

Tissue

Chapter 4

Link


Tissues

Tissues

  • Tissue:

  • 4 Primary Tissue Types

    • Epithelial

    • Connective

    • Muscle

    • Nervous

http://www.stegen.k12.mo.us/tchrpges/sghs/ksulkowski/images/20_Simple_Columnar_Epithelial_Tissue.jpg


Match tissue type to function

Match Tissue Type to Function

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

  • Nervous

  • Muscle

  • Supports, protects, binds other tissues together

  • Internal communication

  • Contracts to cause movement

  • Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters


Epithelial tissue epithelium

Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)

  • Two main types (by location):

    • Covering and lining epithelium

    • Glandular epithelium

Forms boundaries b/w different environments

http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/BerndCV/Lab/EpithelialInfoWeb/goblet%20cells%20.jpg


Functions of epithelial tissue

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

  • Protection

  • Absorption

  • Filtration

  • Excretion

  • Secretion

  • Sensory reception


Characteristics of epithelial tissue

Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue

  • Cells have polarity

  • Are composed of closely packed cells

  • Supported by a connective tissue reticular lamina (under the basal lamina)

  • Avascular but innervated

  • High rate of regeneration


Classification of epithelia

Classification of Epithelia

  • Ask two questions:

    • How many layers?

      1 = simple epithelium

      >1 = stratified epithelium


Classification of epithelia1

Classification of Epithelia

  • What type of cell?

    • Squamous

    • Cuboidal

    • Columnar

Note: if stratified, name according to apical layer of cells!


Overview of epithelial tissues

Overview of Epithelial Tissues

  • For each of the following types of epithelia, note:

    • Description

    • Function

    • Location


Simple epithelia

Simple Epithelia

  • Single cell layer (usually very thin)

  • Concerned with:

    • Absorption

    • Secretion

    • Filtration

  • NOT concerned with: protection

  • Simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudo stratified columnar


Simple squamous epithelium

Simple Squamous Epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Simple squamous epithelium

forming part of the alveolar (air sac) walls (125x).

Note: ENDOTHELIUM AND MESOTHELIUM


Simple cuboidal e pithelium

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

(b) Simple cuboidal epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Simple cuboidal

epithelium in kidney tubules (430x).


Simple columnar epithelium

Simple Columnar Epithelium

(c) Simple columnar epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Simple columnar epithelium

of the stomach mucosa (860X).


Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

(c) Simple columnar epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph:Pseudostratified ciliated

columnar epithelium lining the human trachea (570x).


Stratified epithelium

Stratified Epithelium

  • 2+ cell layers

  • Regenerate from below

  • More durable than simple epithelia

  • Major role: Protection


Stratified squamous epithelium

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Stratified squamous epithelium

lining the esophagus (285x).


Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location


Stratified columnar epithelium

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/115414/large/C0051252-Stratified_columnar_epithelium,_urethra-SPL.jpg


Transitional epithelium

Transitional Epithelium

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Transitional epithelium lining the urinary

bladder, relaxed state (360X); note the bulbous, or rounded,

appearance of the cells at the surface; these cells flatten and

become elongated when the bladder is filled with urine.


Glandular epithelia

Glandular Epithelia

  • Gland: one or more cells that secretes and aqueous fluid

  • Classified by:

    • Site of product release

      • Endocrine

      • Exocrine

    • Relative number of cells forming the gland

      • Unicellular

      • Multicellular


Glands

More numerous!

Glands

Endocrine

Exocrine

Secrete products into ducts

Secretions released onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities

Examples: mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands

  • Ductless glands

  • Secrete hormones that travel through lymph or blood to target organs

  • Examples: Thyroid Gland, Pituitary Gland

  • Covered in Ch. 16


Unicellular exocrine glands

Unicellular Exocrine Glands

  • Goblet cell and Mucous cell

    • Mucin -> mucous


Multicellular exocrine glands

Multicellular Exocrine Glands

  • Composed of a duct and a secretory unit

  • Classified according to:

    • Duct type

      • Simple

      • Compound

    • Structure of secretory units

      • tubular

      • alveolar

      • tubuloalveolar


Tissue

Simple duct structure

(duct does not branch)

Compound duct structure

(duct branches)

Tubular

secretory

structure

Simple tubular

Simple branched

tubular

Compound tubular

Example

Intestinal glands

Example

Stomach (gastric)

glands

Example

Duodenal glands of small intestine

Alveolar

secretory

structure

Simple

alveolar

Simple branched

alveolar

Compound alveolar

Compound

tubuloalveolar

Example

No important

example in humans

Example

Sebaceous (oil)

glands

Example

Mammary glands

Example

Salivary glands

Surface epithelium

Duct

Secretory epithelium

Figure 4.5


Modes of secretion

Modes of Secretion

Merocrine

Holocrine

Products are secreted by rupture of gland cells

sebaceous (oil) glands

  • Products are secreted by exocytosis

  • pancreas, sweat and salivary glands


Connective tissue

Connective Tissue

  • Most abundant and widely distributed tissue type

  • Four main classes

    • Connective Tissue Proper

    • Cartilage

    • Bone Tissue

    • Blood

See Table 4.1


Major functions of connective tissue

Major Functions of Connective Tissue

  • Binding and Support

  • Protection

  • Insulation

  • Stores reserve fuel

  • Transports


Characteristics of connective tissue

Characteristics of Connective Tissue

  • Connective tissues have:

    • Mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin

    • Varying degrees of vascularity

    • Cells separated by nonliving extracellular matrix (ground substance and fibers)

  • 3 Structural Elements

    • Ground substance

    • Fibers

    • Cells


Structural elements of connective tissue

Structural Elements of Connective Tissue

  • Ground substance

    • Medium through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells

    • Components:

      • Interstitial fluid

      • Adhesion proteins (“glue”)

      • Proteoglycans

        • Protein core + large polysaccharides

        • Trap water -> viscosity


Structural elements of connective tissue1

Structural Elements of Connective Tissue

  • Connective Tissue Fibers

    • Collagen (white fibers)

      • Strongest and most abundant type

      • Provides high tensile strength

    • Elastic (yellow fibers)

      • Networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch/recoil

    • Reticular

      • Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers


Structural elements of connective tissue2

Structural Elements of Connective Tissue

  • Cells (see table 4.1)

    • Mitotically active and secretory cells = “blasts”

      • Fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells

    • Mature cells = “cytes”

      • Chondrocytes, osteocytes

    • Other cell types

      • Fat cells, white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages


Tissue

Cell types

Extracellular

matrix

Ground substance

Fibers

• Collagen fiber

• Elastic fiber

• Reticular fiber

Macrophage

Fibroblast

Lymphocyte

Fat cell

Capillary

Mast cell

Neutrophil

Figure 4.7


Connective tissue embryonic

Connective Tissue: Embryonic

  • Mesenchyme—embryonic connective tissue

    • Gives rise to all other connective tissues

    • Gel-like ground substance with fibers and star-shaped mesenchymal cells


Connective tissue proper

Types:

Loose connective tissue

Areolar

Adipose

Reticular

Dense connective tissue

Dense regular

Dense irregular

Elastic

Connective Tissue Proper


Loose connective areolar

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

Loose Connective: Areolar

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, a

soft packaging tissue of the body (300x).


Loose connective adipose

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

Loose Connective: Adipose

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from the

subcutaneous layer under the skin (350x).


Loose connective reticular

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

Loose Connective: Reticular

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticular

connective tissue fibers forming the internal skeleton

of the spleen (350x).


Dense connective dense regular

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

Dense Connective: Dense Regular

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Dense regular connective

tissue from a tendon (500x).


Dense connective dense irregular

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

Dense Connective: Dense Irregular

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Dense irregular

connective tissue from the dermis of the

skin (400x).


Dense connective elastic

CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

Dense Connective: Elastic

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Elastic connective tissue in

the wall of the aorta (250x).


Connective tissue cartilage

Connective Tissue: Cartilage

  • Stands up to both compression and tension

  • No nerve fibers, avascular

  • 80% water

  • Chondroblasts– produce new matrix

  • Chondrocytes – mature cartilage cells

    • Found in small groups in lacunae


Hyaline cartilage

CARTILAGE

Hyaline Cartilage

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from thetrachea (750x).


Elastic cartilage

CARTILAGE

Elastic Cartilage

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Elastic cartilage fromthe human ear pinna; forms the flexibleskeleton of the ear (800x).


Fibrocartilage

CARTILAGE

Fibrocartilage

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of an

intervertebral disc (125x). Special staining

produced the blue color seen.


Connective tissue bone

Connective Tissue: Bone

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional viewof bone (125x).


Connective tissue blood

Connective Tissue: Blood

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1860x); twowhite blood cells (neutrophil in upper left and lymphocytein lower right) are seen surrounded by red blood cells.


Nervous tissue

Nervous Tissue

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Neurons (350x)


Muscle tissue

Muscle Tissue

  • Highly cellular, well vascularized

  • Movement

  • Types

    • Skeletal

    • Cardiac

    • Smooth


Skeletal muscle

MUSCLE TISSUE

Skeletal Muscle

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Skeletal muscle (approx. 460x).

Notice the obvious banding pattern and the

fact that these large cells are multinucleate.


Cardiac muscle

MUSCLE TISSUE

Cardiac Muscle

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Cardiac muscle (500X);notice the striations, branching of cells, andthe intercalated discs.


Smooth muscle

MUSCLE TISSUE

Smooth Muscle

  • Description

  • Function

  • Location

Photomicrograph: Sheet of smooth muscle (200x).


Epithelial membranes

Epithelial Membranes

  • Cutaneous membrane (skin)

  • Mucous membranes

    • Mucosae

      • Line body cavities open to the exterior (e.g., digestive and respiratory tracts)

  • Serous Membranes

    • Serosae—membranes (mesothelium + areolar tissue) in a closed ventral body cavity

      • Parietal serosae line internal body walls

      • Visceral serosae cover internal organs


Tissue

Mucosa of

nasal cavity

Mucosa of

mouth

Esophagus

lining

Mucosa of

lung bronchi

(b) Mucous membranes line body cavitiesopen to the exterior.

Figure 4.11b


Tissue

Parietal

peritoneum

Parietal

pleura

Visceral

pleura

Visceral

peritoneum

Parietal

pericardium

Visceral

pericardium

(c) Serous membranes line body cavitiesclosed to the exterior.

Figure 4.11c


Steps in tissue repair

Steps in Tissue Repair

  • Inflammation

  • Organization and Restored Blood Supply

  • Regeneration and Fibrosis


Tissue

Scab

Epidermis

Blood clot inincised wound

Vein

Migrating whiteblood cell

Inflammatorychemicals

Artery

1

Inflammation sets the stage:

• Severed blood vessels bleed and inflammatory chemicals arereleased.

• Local blood vessels become more permeable, allowing whiteblood cells, fluid, clotting proteins and other plasma proteinsto seep into the injured area.

• Clotting occurs; surface dries and forms a scab.

Figure 4.12, step 1


Tissue

Regeneratingepithelium

Area ofgranulationtissueingrowth

Fibroblast

Macrophage

2

Organization restores the blood supply:

• The clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restoresthe vascular supply.

• Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap.

• Macrophages phagocytize cell debris.

• Surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over thegranulation tissue.

Figure 4.12, step 2


Tissue

Regeneratedepithelium

Fibrosedarea

3

Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair:

• The fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epitheliumthickens.

• A fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area ofscar tissue results.

Figure 4.12, step 3


Developmental aspects

Developmental Aspects

  • Primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

    • Formed early in embryonic development

    • Specialize to form the four primary tissues

      • Nerve tissue arises from ectoderm

      • Muscle and connective tissues arise from mesoderm

      • Epithelial tissues arise from all three germ layers


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