Naming ions
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Naming Ions. What is a Monatomic Ion?. A monotomic ion consists of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of valence electrons

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Naming Ions

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Naming ions

Naming Ions


What is a monatomic ion

What is a Monatomic Ion?

  • A monotomic ion consists of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of valence electrons

  • A cation is an ion with a positive charge. Metals in groups 1A, 2A, and 3A form a cation with the same charge as their group number

  • The names of cations in these groups is the name of the element followed by ion or cation.

  • Example: Na+ is sodium ion or sodium cation

  • Ca2+ is calcium ion or calcium cation


Naming anions

Naming Anions

  • An anion is an atom that has gained electrons and thus has a negative charge

  • The charge of a nonmetal anion in group A is determined by subtracting 8 from the group number.

  • Elements in group 7A have a charge of -1 (7-8=-1)

  • The name of an anion is not the same as the element’s name

  • Anion names have the root of the element name with –ide added to it.

  • Example: A chlorine ion is called chloride, and oxygen ion in called oxide


Practice

Practice

  • Fluorine Ion

  • Bromine Ion

  • Selenium Ion

  • Nitrogen Ion

  • Fluoride

  • Bromide

  • Selenide

  • Nitride


Ions of transition metals

Ions of Transition Metals

  • Transition metals do not form consitant charges when ioninzing like elements in the A group

  • They can form multiple ions

  • Iron can form Fe2+ and Fe3+

  • These cations are named differently than others.

  • When naming an ion of a transition metal, write the name of the element folowed by it’s charge written in roman numerals following it.

  • Example: Fe2+ is written as iron (II) and Fe3+ is written as iron (III)


Exceptions

Exceptions

  • Some transition metals have only one ionic charge.

  • The names of these elements do not have a roman numeral

  • These excepetions include silver (Ag+), cadmium (Cd2+), and zinc (Zn2+)


Practice1

Practice

  • Pb2+

  • Pb4+

  • Cr2+

  • Cr3+

  • lead (II)

  • lead (IV)

  • chromium (II)

  • chromium (III)


Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic Ions

  • A polyatomic ion is an ion composed of more than one atom.

  • The names of most polyatomic ions in in –ite or –ate.

  • All polyatomics ending in –ite or –ate contain oxygen


Adding hydrogen

Adding Hydrogen

  • When the formula for a polyatomic ion contains hydrogen, it is a combination of an H+ ion and another polyatomic ion

  • H+ + CO32- (carbonate) -> HCO3- hydrogen carbonate

  • H+ + PO43- (phosphate) -> HPO42- hydrogen phosphate


Naming compounds with polyatomic ions

Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

  • Naming a compound with a polyatomic ion works the same as with other ionic compounds

  • Name the cation first then the anion

  • Use the name of the polyatomic ion when naming.


Example

Example


Naming and writing ionic compounds

Naming and Writing Ionic Compounds


What is a binary ionic compound

What is a Binary Ionic Compound

  • A binary ionic compound is composed of two elements joined by an ionic bond.

  • To name a binary ionic compound place the name of the cation first, followed by the name of the anion.

  • The compound must remain neutral

  • Example: NaBr would be sodium bromide

  • Example: CuO would be copper (II) oxide

  • This is known because the charge of oxygen is a 2-, so copper must have a charge of 2+ for the compound to be neutral


Naming ions

  • Cu2O

  • SnF2

  • SnS2

  • copper (I) oxide

  • tin (II) fluoride

  • tin (IV) fluoride


Writing formulas for binary ionic compounds

Writing formulas for binary ionic compounds

  • If you know the name of a binary ionic compound, you can write it’s formula

  • The net charge of the compound must be zero

  • First figure out the charge of the atoms in the name of the compound

  • Then use the charge of one compound as the subscript for the other compound

  • Then reduce to the lowest whole number ratio


Example1

Example

  • Write the formula for calcium sulfide

  • From the periodic table, the charge of calcium is 2+

  • From the periodic table, the charge of sulfur is

    6 -8 = -2 or S2-

  • Ca2+ and S2- crossing the charges gives Ca2S2

  • Reducing to the lowest whole number ratio gives CaS


Example2

Example

  • Write the formula for iron (III) oxide

  • From the name of the ionic compound, the charge of iron is Fe3+

  • From the periodic table, the charge of oxygen is

    6 -8 = -2 or O2-

  • Fe3+ and O2- crossing the charges gives Fe2O3


Practice2

Practice

  • copper (II) sulfide

  • potassium nitride

  • CuS

  • K3N


Compounds with polyatomic ions

Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

  • Compounds with polyatomic ions behave the same as those without

  • The method for writing their formula is the same as ordinary ionic compounds, except you look up the charge from a table of polyatomic ions instead of the periodic table


Example3

Example

  • Write the formula for calcium nitrate

  • From the periodic table, the charge of calcium is 2+

  • From the polyatomic table, the charge of nitrate is 1-

  • Ca2+ and NO3- crossing the charges gives Ca(NO3)2

  • For a polyatomic ion, the subscript is written on the outside of the parenthesis


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