British standards
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British Standards. What is the BSi Why was it formed? What is a standard?. What is BSI?.

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British Standards

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British standards

British Standards

What is the BSi

Why was it formed?

What is a standard?


What is bsi

What is BSI?

  • British Standards Institute, BSI was the first national Standards-making body in the world. Independent of government, BSI is a non-profit distributing organisation. It is globally recognised as an independent and impartial body serving both the private and public sectors, working with manufacturing and service industries, businesses and governments to facilitate the production of British, European and international Standards.


Why was it formed

Why was it formed?

  • In 1901 the Institutions of Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Naval Architects and the Iron and Steel Institute created a committee, to standardize iron and steel sections for bridges, railways and shipping.

  • The committee succeeded in cutting the production of different tram rails from 75 down to five. This saved the industry about £1 million a year!

  • By 1929, the committee became the British Engineering Standards Association and was granted a Royal Charter, which defined the Association's objectives. A year later the Association became the British Standards Institution (BSI).


Why was it formed1

Why was it formed?

  • Today, more than 100 years after the British Engineering Standards Association first met, BSI has 2,274 employees world-wide and operates in over 110 countries. There are over 27,000 current British Standards.


What is a standard

What is a standard?

  • A Standard is a published specification that establishes a common language, and contains a technical specification or other precise criteria and is designed to be used consistently, as a rule, a guideline, or a definition.

  • Standards are applied to many materials, products, methods and services. They help to make life simpler, and increase the reliability and the effectiveness of many goods and services we use.

  • Standards are designed for voluntary use and do not impose any regulations. However, laws and regulations may refer to certain Standards making compliance with them compulsory.

  • For example, the format of credit cards, Standard number BS EN ISO/IEC 7810:1996 defines their dimensions. Adhering to this Standard means that the cards can be used worldwide.


Why do we have standards

Why do we have standards?

  • There are currently over 20,000 British Standards. Standards affect our daily lives in many ways, making life easier, safer and healthier. Imagine if bulbs from different companies didn't fit the lamps that you bought, or that CDs didn't fit all CD players. Without Standards for people to follow, then all our products would behave slightly differently, making them hard to operate, to fix or to programme. Standards are created for many different products and services, including pet food, furniture, bikes, televisions, toys and even fabric colours.


How can we show we have standards

How can we show we have Standards?

  • If a product passes all of the specified independent tests that make up a particular Standard, manufacturers can indicate this by displaying a certification mark on its surface. Products that have not undergone the standardization process are not allowed to do so.


Logos used with standards

Logos used with standards


What are the kitemark and ce marking

What are the Kitemark and CE marking?

  • When you see a product with a Kitemark this means BSI has independently tested it and has confirmed that the product conforms to the relevant British Standard, and has issued a BSI license to the company to use the Kitemark. The manufacturer pays for this service and their product is tested, and the manufacturing process is assessed, at regular intervals. The Kitemark is the symbol that gives consumers the assurance that the product they have bought really does conform to the appropriate British Standard and should therefore be safe and reliable. Manufacturers are not legally required to display a Kitemark on their products, but many everyday products and appliances such as fridges, electrical plugs and crash helmets have them.


What is ce marking

What is CE marking?

  • Many products such as new toys must meet legal requirements before they can be sold within the European Community, and must carry CE marking. CE marking attached to a product is a manufacturer's claim that it meets all the requirements of the European legislation.

  • Some products carry both a Kitemark and CE marking. This indicates that BSI has independently tested them against the appropriate standard.


British standards

Toys


British standards

Toys

  • With the emergence of the single European Market an increasing number of British Standards have become harmonised with European Standards. This includes the British Standard for Toys which is known as BS EN 71 Safety of toys.

  • This means that the Standard is both a British (BS) and European (EN) Standard.


British standards

Toys

  • Since 1990 the European Community Directive (community law) for Toy Safety has set out the 'essential requirements' that toys must be manufactured in order to be legally sold within the European Community.

  • In the UK this directive is met through Toys (Safety) Regulations 1995. Toy manufacturers usually achieve this by ensuring their products satisfy all the requirements of BS EN 71. This requirement does not apply to second hand toys.


British standards

Toys

  • All toys must meet these minimum requirements and carry CE marking. CE marking is designed to remove European trade barriers by showing that the product complies with the European Directive. It is not a European safety or quality mark.

  • To help you understand what a Standard might cover here is BS EN 71 in the spotlight.


Bs en 71 safety of toys

BS EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • BS EN 71 is made up of eleven parts. Briefly these are:

  • Part 1: Mechanical and physical propertiesThis means all the parts of a toy that can be touched. This part of the Standard tries to make sure that toys cannot stab, trap, mangle or choke.

  • Part 2: FlammabilityThis part, for example, covers wendy houses, soft toys, fancy dress clothes and disguise masks. The Standard tries to ensure that if a product does catch fire you can drop it or get out of it before serious injury occurs. Certain flammable materials, that pose the greatest risk, are prohibited from all toys.


Bs en 71 safety of toys1

BS EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 3: Migration of certain elementsThis basically means poisons. Limits are set for chemicals such as lead, cadmium and mercury which may be dangerous if swallowed or chewed by a child. For instance, you wouldn't want large quantities of lead in paint for toy cars that could be chewed by a baby.


En 71 safety of toys

EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 4: Experimental sets for chemistry and related activitiesIts aim is to limit the dangers of using such sets by, for example, limiting the amount of certain chemicals used in sets.

  • Part 5: Chemical toys (sets) other than experimental sets Includes 'toys' containing chemicals such as water based paints or photographic developing sets. This part of the Standard sets the requirements for the substances and materials used in them.


En 71 safety of toys1

EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 6: Graphical symbol for age warning labelling Covers age warning symbol labelling and specifies the requirements of the symbols used on toys not suitable for children under the age of three.

  • Part 7: Finger paints Specifies requirements for colourants and preservatives, and is concerned with limiting the risks of ingesting paint and of prolonged skin contact with paint.


En 71 safety of toys2

EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 8: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use This part is concerned with limiting the dangers of protruding parts, limiting heights and ensuring stability, and requires that no part of a child or a child's clothing can be trapped. It also specifies that the toy or its packaging is clearly labelled "for domestic use" and whether it's for indoor or outdoor use.


En 71 safety of toys3

EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 9: Organic chemical compounds (limits)Sets the limits for over 600 substances that might be present in toys that could cause harm to a child from chewing or sucking, from swallowing, from contact with skin or with eyes, or from inhalation.


En 71 safety of toys4

EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 10: Organic chemical compounds (preparation of samples)This part specifies how samples from toys and extracted toy materials can be prepared for testing to see if the compounds present, such as solvents and preservatives covered by in Part 9, could cause harm to children.


En 71 safety of toys5

EN 71 Safety of Toys

  • Part 11: Organic chemical compounds (testing)The third part of the series on chemical compounds sets out testing procedures so that the toys and toy materials prepared using Part 10 can be checked against the limits set in Part 9.


How is a standard produced

How is a standard produced

  • As with all good designing and manufacturing solutions, group work is involved. A Standard is produced when a team of experienced experts discuss, and then decide on, what would make a particular product safe, reliable and of a high quality. Different experts will be used depending on the particular product or service that needs to be standardized. These experts then create a list of rules, ideas and tests that need to be applied to that product. This is known as a draft Standard. The draft Standard is then released to all those who may design, make, sell or use that particular product.


How is a standard produced1

How is a standard produced

  • After addressing any important comments on the draft Standards, further discussions are held. Once these are complete, the final Standard is published. These final processes are similar to the evaluation exercises or product analysis that you undertake in project work, where everyone is involved and puts in ideas and suggestions for improvements. The final Standard is identified with letters and numbers, almost like a code, which is much easier than including all of the lengthy descriptions. If a Standard is used in Britain it will contain BS, if used in Europe it will contain EN and if it is used across the world, it will contain ISO.


How is a standard produced2

How is a standard produced

  • Standards are updated regularly to make sure they meet the needs of manufacturers, sellers and users, as these needs may change.


Who pays for them

Who pays for them?

  • BSI charges companies to test their products, offers them advice and sells them documents and expertise. BSI acts to provide a service rather than a specific product that can be bought and sold. This money is then used to help produce new Standards and to update existing ones.


References

References

  • http://www.bsieducation.org/


Self assessment

Self assessment

  • What is the BSi?

  • Why was it formed?

  • What is a standard?

  • Why do we have standards?

  • What is a kitemark, can you draw one?


Self assessment1

Self assessment

  • Why do we have a CE mark?

  • What is BS EN 71 and what are the main elements of it?

  • How is a standard produced?

  • Who pays for standards?

  • How is this money then put to use?


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