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Atoms and the Periodic Table. Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. Atoms are made up of: Protons—Positively charged particles; found in the nucleus Neutrons—Particles that have no charge; found in the nucleus Electrons—Negatively charged particles; found outside the nucleus.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.
  • Atoms are made up of:
      • Protons—Positively charged particles; found in the nucleus
      • Neutrons—Particles that have no charge; found in the nucleus
      • Electrons—Negatively charged particles; found outside the nucleus
slide3

Nucleus containing two protons and two neutrons

-

+

+

-

1st energy level containing two electrons

slide5
Elements are made up of atoms.
  • Elements: substances that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances
    • examples: Gold, Iron, and Silver

Atoms of:

ELEMENT

Pure Gold 18-Karat Gold 14-Karat Gold

how to read the periodic table
How to Read the Periodic Table
  • Chemical Symbol: the letters
  • Atomic Number: found above the chemical symbol
  • Atomic Mass: found below the chemical symbol
slide8
Atomic Number = # of protons (= # of electrons)
  • # of neutrons = atomic mass – atomic #
  • Isotope: Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

two isotopes of Sodium

slide9
Ions: atoms that gain or lose electrons; have a positive charge (more protons-called a cation) or a negative charge (more electrons-called a anion)
  • Valence Electron Rule (Outermost)
  • 1-3 electrons- lose- positive -cation
  • 4- covalent bond (covalent bond-share a pair)
  • 5-7 electrons – gain- negative - anion
  • 8 –Inert because the atom is full ( Noble gases
electron shell diagram and electron dot formula
Electron Shell Diagram and Electron Dot Formula
  • 1st electron shell can hold 2 electrons
  • 2nd electron shell can hold 8 electrons
  • 3rd electron shell can hold 8 electrons

1st

2nd

Nucleus

3rd

slide11
Electron shell diagram: shows the arrangement of all the electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom

The first 2 electrons go in the 1st energy level.

The other 4 electrons go in the 2nd energy level.

6 P

6 N

If we have 6 protons in the nucleus, we need to have 6 electrons in the energy levels around the nucleus.

slide12
Electron dot formula: shows the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell

Next, you draw a dot for each electron in the outermost energy level. You can put dots on four sides of the symbol—top, bottom, left, and right. Put the dots in pairs.

C

First, you write the symbol for the element.

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