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Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Control & Cash. ACG 2021: Chapter 7. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. This act is considered one of the most important and significant laws affecting publicly held companies in recent history. Publicly held companies –are those traded on public exchanges

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Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Control & Cash

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Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Control & Cash

ACG 2021: Chapter 7


Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

  • This act is considered one of the most important and significant laws affecting publicly held companies in recent history.

    • Publicly held companies –are those traded on public exchanges

  • Purpose is to restore public confidence and trust in the financial statements of companies.

  • Emphasizes the importance of internal control.

    • Internal Control – as the procedures and processes used by a company to safeguard its assets, process information accurately, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations.

  • Requires companies to maintain strong and effective internal controls over the recording of transactions and preparation of financial statements.

    • To deter fraud and prevent misleading financial statements.

  • Requires companies and their independent accountants to report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal controls


Sarbanes Oxley

  • Caused by

    • Enron

    • Worldcom

    • Tyco


Internal Controls

  • are the policies and procedures that:

    • protect assets from misuse,

    • ensure that business information is accurate,

    • ensure that laws and regulations are being followed


Objectives of Internal Controls

  • Provides reasonable assurance that

    • Assets are safeguarded and used for business purposes

    • Business information is accurate

    • Employees comply with laws and regulations


Elements

  • Control environment

  • Risk assessment

  • Control procedures

  • Monitoring

  • Information and communication


Control procedures

  • Competent personnel

  • Rotating duties

  • Mandatory vacations

  • Separating responsibilities

  • Separating operations

  • Proof and security measures


Cash – includes coins, currency, checks, money orders, and money on deposit

Businesses may have more than one cash account.

Operating account

Payroll account

Savings account

Cash Controls over Receipts and Payments


Control of Cash Receipts

  • To protect cash from theft and misuse, a business must control cash from the time it is received until it is deposited in a bank.

  • Two main sources of cash:

    • Customers purchasing products or services

    • Customers making payments on account


Cash Received from Cash Sales:

  • Regardless of the source of cash receipts, every business must properly safeguard and record its cash receipts.

  • Cash registers help minimize risk

  • Change fund – amount in each drawer at the beginning of a shift.


Cash in Register

  • Cash register

    • Change fund: monies at the start of the shift

    • At the end of the day, monies in the register may not equal what is should be

    • Short – too little – an expense to the business

    • Over – too much – revenue to the business


Recording of Difference

  • Cash short and over

    • New account

    • Classification depends on balance

    • Short => Debit = expense

    • Over => Credit = revenue


Cash Short and Over

  • Example: Cash sales show $2,000 and cash in drawer is $2,005.


Cash short and Over

  • Example 2:: Suppose that cash sales are $3,500 and cash in drawer is $3,400.


Cash short and Over

  • Cash short & Over

Debit

Short

Results in expense

Credit

Over

Results in revenue


Cash Control over Receipts

  • Cash Received by Mail:

    • Lock box

    • Cash controls

  • Cash Received by EFT:

    • EFT – electronic funds transfers

    • Most companies encourage automatic electronic transfers by customers

      • Term used in the auditor’s opinion of the internal control environment

  • Less costly

    • Enhance internal controls


Control of Cash Payments

  • Control of cash payments should provide reasonable assurance that payments are made for only authorized transactions.

  • Voucher system

    • Set of procedures for authorizing and recording liabilities to pay cash or issue an electronic funds transfer.

  • Cash paid by EFT

    • Payroll systems


Bank Accountsand Bank Reconciliation

  • Bank accounts are used for control purposes

  • Reduces the amount of cash on hand at any one time

  • Provide independent recording of cash transactions

  • Facilitates the transfer of funds

  • Terminology:

    • Bank statement – a summary of transactions

      • Credit – increase in bank balance

        • ACH: automated clearing house entry for EFT

        • MS – miscellaneous credit

      • Debit – decrease in bank balance

        • NSF – not sufficient funds check

        • SC – service charge

        • ACH: automated clearing house entry for EFT


Bank Reconciliation

  • The reasons for the difference between the cash balance on the bank statement and the cash balance in the accounting records should be analyzed by preparing a bank reconciliation.

  • It is an analysis of the items and amounts that cause the cash balance reported in the bank statement to differ from the balance of the cash account in the ledger in order to determine the adjusted cash balance.


Bank Reconciliation

  • Steps in Bank Reconciliation:

    • Compare deposits on the bank statements with the ledger

      • Compare checks on the bank statements with the ledger

      • Add credit memo that have not been recorded to the balance according to the company’s records.

      • Deduct debit memo that have not been recorded form the balance according to the company’s records.

      • List any errors discovered during the preceding steps.


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Bank’s records

Company’s records

Beginning balance$2,549.99

Beginning balance$3,359.78

Add deposit not

recorded by bank 816.20

Add note and interest

collected by bank 408.00

$4,175.98

$2,957.99

Deduct outstanding

checks:

No. 812$1,061.00

No. 878435.39

No. 883 48.60 1,544.99

Deduct check

NSF$300.00

Bank service

charges18.00

Error recording

Check No. 879 9.00

327.00

Adjusted balance$2,630.99

Adjusted balance$2,630.99

51


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7-5

Bank Reconciliation for Power Networking

52


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7-5

Entry to Record Plus Items

July 31Cash 408 00

Notes Receivable 400 00

Interest Income8 00

Note collected by bank.

55


July 31Cash 408 00

Notes Receivable 400 00

Interest Income8 00

Note collected by bank.

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7-5

Entry to Record Minus Items

31Accounts Receivable—Thomas Ivey 300 00

Miscellaneous Expense18 00

Accounts Payable—Taylor Co.9 00

Cash327 00

NSF check, bank service charges, and error in recording Check no. 879.

57


Example

  • Deposit on July 31 not recorded on bank statement $816.20

  • Checks outstanding No 12 $1,061.00, No 8 $435.39, No 3 $48.60

  • Note plus interest of $8 collected by the bank $408.00

  • Check from customers return by bank because of insufficient funds $300.00

  • Bank service charge $18

  • Check No 23 recorded as $723.26 when it was actually $732.26.

  • Bank balance on statement $3359.78

  • Book balance per general ledger $2549.99

  • Do a bank reconciliation and prepare entries.


Petty Cash

  • Fund for small cash expenses

    • Supplies

    • Postage

    • Food

    • Parking

  • Petty Cash is an asset account


Petty Cash Entries

  • Establish the fund: Check written to petty cash for $500.


Petty Cash Entries

  • Reimburse the account

  • Example 1: Suppose that petty cash fund as the following receipts: office supplies $200, Miscellaneous $100, reimburse the account.


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