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Enlightenment & American Revolution. Ch 17. Philosophy in the Age of Reason. Sec 1. Natural Law. Who: Europeans What: rules that are discoverable by reasoning that governed scientific forces such as gravity & magnetism Where: Europe When: 1500s-1600s

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Enlightenment & American Revolution

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Enlightenment american revolution

Enlightenment & American Revolution

Ch 17


Philosophy in the age of reason

Philosophy in the Age of Reason

Sec 1


Natural law

Natural Law

  • Who: Europeans

  • What: rules that are discoverable by reasoning that governed scientific forces such as gravity & magnetism

  • Where: Europe

  • When: 1500s-1600s

  • Why: scientific success convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason; used to better understand social, economic, & political probs; used this to study human behavior & solve probs = led to the Enlightenment


Thomas hobbes

Thomas Hobbes

  • Who: 17th century English thinker

  • What: set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment ; wrote “Leviathan”

  • Where: England

  • When: 1700s

  • Why: he lived through upheavals in the English Civil War; outlined his ideas in “Leviathan”= argued that ppl were naturally cruel, greedy & selfish; he said that ppl entered into “Social Contract” to avoid brutal life; best gov’t= Absolute Monarchy


John locke

John Locke

  • Who: 17th century English thinker

  • What: set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment

  • Where: England

  • When: 1700s

  • Why: he thought ppl were reasonable & moral; ppl had certain natural rights: life, liberty, & property; came to very diff ideas about the human nature & role of govt= govt has obligation to its ppl, if it fails, it fails the ppl = if govt violates natural rights = ppl have a right to overthrow= American & French Revolutions


Social contract

Social Contract

  • Who: European ppl; Thomas Hobbes

  • What: an agreement where ppl gave up their freedom for an organized society

  • Where: Europe

  • When: 1500s-1600s

  • Why: Hobbes said that ppl entered into this agreement to escape the brutish lifestyle; believed a powerful govt = orderly society; promoted Absolutism


Natural right

Natural Right

  • Who: John Locke

  • What: rights that belonged to all humans on earth such as life, liberty, & property

  • Where: England

  • When: 1700-1800s

  • Why: Locke believed ppl are reasonable & moral= they have rights from birth; ppl had a right to overthrow a govt if these rights were violated = American & French Revolutions


Philosophe

Philosophe

  • Who: French Enlightenment thinkers/philosophers

  • What: they believed the use of reason could lead to reforms of gov’t, law, & society

  • Where: France, Europe

  • When: 1700s

  • Why: this group of thinkers started Enlightenment thought = spread throughout Europe & beyond; applied methods of science to improve society


Montesquieu

Montesquieu

  • Who: an early influential thinker; a philisophe

  • What: studied the gov’ts of Europe & learned about Chinese & Native Am. Cultures; wrote “Sprit of Laws”

  • Where: France, Europe

  • When: 1689-1748

  • Why: his sharp criticism of Absolutism = debate; in order to protect liberty the gov’t should be divided into 3 branches; idea taken by framers of US Constitution; wrote “Persian Letters”= ridiculed French Gov’t


Voltaire

Voltaire

  • Who: a Philosophe, poet & historian

  • What: an imprisoned poet, historian, essayist & philosopher

  • Where: Paris, France

  • When: 1694-1778

  • Why: he detested the slave trade; deplored religious prejudice; defended principle of freedom of speech; his new ideas= imprisoned & forced into exile


Diderot

Diderot

  • Who:

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Rousseau

Rousseau

  • Who:

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Laissez faire

Laissez-Faire

  • Who:

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Adam smith

Adam Smith

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Rococo

Rococo

  • Who: Architect & Designers

  • What: Personal, elegant style of art & architecture made popular that featured designs.

  • Where: Paris, France

  • When: 1600’s-1700’s (mid)

  • Why: Rococo art moved away from religion unlike, Baroque. Rococo was believed to encourage imagination. Portrait showed noble subjects in charming rural settings, surrounded by happy servants. Despite it being criticized it had a vast of people in upper class & graving middle class.


Enlightenment ideas spread sec 2

Enlightenment Ideas SpreadSec 2


Censorship

Censorship

  • Who:

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Salons

Salons

  • Who:

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Baroque

Baroque

  • Who: Greek & Romans

  • What: Courtly art and architecture were neither in the Greek and Romans tradition or in a grand, ornate style.

  • Where: Europe

  • When: 1600’s-1700’s

  • Why: Baroque paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement. They glorified historic battles or the lives of the saints. Such works matched the grandeur of the European courts at that time.


Enlightenment despot

Enlightenment Despot

  • Who: Monarchs, Frederick the Great, Joseph II, and Catherine the Great

  • What: Those that accepted enlightenment ideas.

  • Where: Europe

  • When:1700’s

  • Why: they were absolute rulers who used their powers to bring about political and social change. These philosophies convinced rulers that change and reform was necessary.


Frederick the great

Frederick the Great

  • Who: King of Prussia

  • What: Exerted &extremely tight control over his subjects.

  • Where: 1740-1786

  • When: Prussia

  • Why: He saw himself as the “First servant of the state,” with a duty to work for the common good. He openly praised Voltaire’s work. He reduce the use of torture and allow a free press. He recognized the governments civil service and simplified laws, the tolerated religious differences.


Catherine the great

Catherine the Great

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Joseph ii

Joseph II

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