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UNIVERSITY OF CRETE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE. INTRAPARTMENTAL GRATUATE PROGRAMM IN THE BRAIN AND MIND SCIENCES YEAR 2013-2014. SUBJECT: CERBRAL CORTEX PROFESSOR: SAVVAKI E. STUDENT: OURANOU M. . Cerebral Cortex November 2007;17:2553--2561 doi:10.1093/ cercor /bhl161

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UNIVERSITY OF CRETE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

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University of crete department of medicine

UNIVERSITY OF CRETE

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

INTRAPARTMENTAL GRATUATE PROGRAMM IN THE BRAIN AND MIND SCIENCES

YEAR 2013-2014

  • SUBJECT: CERBRAL CORTEX

  • PROFESSOR: SAVVAKI E.

  • STUDENT: OURANOU M.


Empathy for pain and touch in the human somatosensory cortex

Cerebral Cortex November 2007;17:2553--2561

doi:10.1093/cercor/bhl161

Advance Access publication January 6, 2007

Empathy for Pain and Touch in the HumanSomatosensory Cortex

Ilaria Bufalari1, Taryn Aprile, Alessio Avenanti1, Francesco Di Russo and Salvatore Maria Aglioti


The subject

The subject

The neural base of Empathy

The Central Question

Observation of painful & tactile stimuli => neural activation of the observer’s somatic sensory system (?)

Method:

- Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs)

-EEG supracranial recordings


Experimental design 1 2

Experimental Design (1/2)

Recordings

  • Electrical stimulation (wrist: right median nerve)

    [!] Unseen by the subjects

    [!] Painless

    ( freq. 3Hz, duration 0,7 ms, mean intensity 11mA)

    => Used for somatosensory potentials elicitation

  • Electroculogramm (EOG): below the left eye

  • Scalp electrodes (4 “regions”- 7 components)


The experimental design 2 2

The experimental design (2/2)

Block duration: 63 s (9 video clips of the same category, clip duration = 6s)

[!] syringe/Q-tip holder: not visible

[!] 3 different penetration/touch places

[!] 3 different liquid/tip colors

The same location & color was not shown consequently in the same block


Visual analog scale vas

Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

After the session=> reviewing of the video clips

I) Self-orientated measure: The subjects evaluated the degree of aversion they felt

0 cm = “no effect”, 10 cm= “maximal imaginable”

II) Other-orientated measure:

  • The Intensity ( how much intense for the model were the stimuli?)

  • The Unpleasantness (How much the stimuli bothered the model?)


So what are they practically looking for

So, what are they practically looking for?

Amplitude: the magnitude of change in the oscillating value

Amplitude ratio: the vertical distance between the heights of the wave's peaks and the heights of its troughs.

Changes of Amplitude

=> ERPs : Event Related Potentials [?]


University of crete department of medicine

Results (1/3)


University of crete department of medicine

Results (2/3)


University of crete department of medicine

Results (3/3)

VAS & amplitude correlation

[!] significant correlation found ONLY betweenP45 amplitude change & VAS Intensity


Conclusions

Conclusions

Aim: to find correlation between amplitude changes and stimuli conditions

The amplitude was reduced by touch stimuli and

increased by painful stimuli observation

Correlation was found with the intensity of pain & touch

The findings indicate that:

  • Observing others’ bodily sensations may influence the way we process our own experiences

  • Other’s noxious & non-noxious sensations may be processed differently but mapped on the somatosensory cortex.

A “mirror sensory” mechanism

Extracts sensory features of other’s pain and maps them onto the somatic cortex [?]


University of crete department of medicine

Thank you !!!!


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