Comparison of the major world religions
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Comparison of the Major World Religions. World Geography Seventh Grade Mr. Meadows. Why is it important to study the major world religions?. 1. This is one of our state standards for seventh grade World Geography.

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Comparison of the Major World Religions

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Comparison of the major world religions

Comparison of the Major World Religions

World Geography

Seventh Grade

Mr. Meadows


Why is it important to study the major world religions

Why is it important to study the major world religions?

  • 1. This is one of our state standards for seventh grade World Geography.

  • 2. You may encounter someone, during your lifetime, who believes in one of these religions.

  • 3. No matter what you believe about God and religion, studying other religions will only deepen your faith and strengthen your own beliefs.


State standard

State Standard

  • 7.1.spi.3. compare and contrast the tenets of the five major world religions (i.e., Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, and Judaism).


What religions are we going to talk about

What religions are we going to talk about?

  • 1. Islam

  • 2. Judaism

  • 3. Hinduism

  • 4. Buddhism

  • 5. Christianity


Islam

Islam

  • Islam is the third great monotheistic faith.

  • Monotheism is the belief in one God.

  • Polytheism is the belief in many Gods.

  • Islam is the fastest growing faith in the world. There are roughly 6 million Americans who are believers in Islam. Followers of Islam are called Muslims.

  • Islam means “submission to God.”


Qur an

Qur’an

  • The Qur’an, Islam’s holy scripture, is acknowledged as the final word of Allah.

  • To Muslims, Allah is God.

  • The Qur’an is considered to be the revelations received by Muhammad, the final and most important prophet of Islam.

  • The Qur’an calls for faith in Allah, warns of the consequences of unbelief, and outlines specific moral duties. It also emphasizes Allah’s unity (“There is no God but Allah.”)


Some comparisons with jews and christians

Some comparisons with Jews and Christians

  • 1. Although Muslims deny the divinity of Jesus, they honor him as a major prophet.

  • 2. They also recognize the angels Gabriel and Michael, familiar to both Jews and Christians.

  • 3. Muslims, like Christians and Jews, consider themselves children of Abraham. Muslims trace their history back to Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar.


The qur an outlines five obligations or pillars as essential to the lives of muslims

The Qur’an outlines five obligations, or pillars, as essential to the lives of Muslims.

  • Five Pillars of Faith

    • Confession of one’s faith in God and in his prophet Muhammad.

    • Ritual Worship

    • Almsgiving

    • Fasting

    • Pilgrimage


Five pillars of faith

Five Pillars of Faith

  • 1. Confession-Muslims must believe that “There is no God but Allah” and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah.

  • 2. Ritual Worship-All Muslims must pray five times a day. They must bow down and pray toward Mecca, where the holy shrine called the Kaaba is located.


Five pillars of faith1

Five Pillars of Faith

  • 3. Almsgiving-Muslims must give a “purification tax” to the poor in the community and their families. It is usually about 2 ½ % of their wealth.

  • 4. Fasting-This is observed during the holy month of Ramadan.

  • 5. Pilgrimage-Every Muslim who is of sound body, sane, and able to afford the journey is expected to make a pilgrimage, or Hajj, to the holy city of Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime.


Ramadan

Ramadan

  • The holy festival of Ramadan occupies the whole of the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. This is usually during the month of November.

  • During Ramadan, Muslims will go through a period of abstention, reflection, and purification.

  • Between sunrise and sunset, adult Muslims do not smoke, eat, drink. They are encouraged to read the Qur’an from beginning to end during the holy month.


Judaism

Judaism

  • This is religion is strongly based on the Torah.

  • The Torah is the first five books of Moses that begin both the Hebrew and Christian Bibles.

  • The Torah also teaches that the Hebrew people descended from Abraham, the patriarch whom God formed the Covenant.


Covenant

Covenant

  • The covenant with Abraham, as described in the book of Genesis, was an agreement under which God would establish a chosen people (“a great nation”) from Abraham’s descendents.

  • In return, Abraham and those who followed him would offer the one true God complete obedience.


The prophets

The Prophets

  • Within the Jewish tradition, the revelation of the Law—the first five books of the Hebrew Bible—was reinforced and supported by the revelation of the Prophets.

  • According to scripture, certain people were chosen by God to remind the people of the Creator’s love for them, and of the necessity of their obedience to the Law.

  • Remember—The Torah is the Law!


Dietary laws

Dietary Laws

  • Ritual cleanliness and the avoidance of unclean animals remain all-important parts of the Jewish tradition.

  • Meat that is kosher comes from animals that both chew a cud and have cloven hoofs (such as sheep and cows), and that are killed in accordance with special slaughtering procedures.

  • Kosher meat must be prepared in such a way as to remove all traces of blood.

  • Kosher dietary guidelines prohibit the consumption of dairy products at the same time,or immediately before or after, a meal including meat products.


Jewish holidays

Jewish Holidays

  • Rosh Hashanah

    • This is the Jewish New Year,a holiday that takes place on the 1st and 2nd days of the Hebrew month Tishrei, roughly the middle of September to the middle of October.

  • Yom Kippur

    • On this day, practicing Jews observe the Day of Atonement. Jewish believers will forego food and drink, no work, and they pray for repentance from sundown to sundown.


Jewish holidays1

Jewish Holidays

  • Hanukkah

    • This festival of lights celebrates the victory of the Maccabees over the Syrians in the second century B.C.

    • It usually falls around Christmas.

    • Work is permitted during Hanukkah.


Jewish holidays2

Jewish Holidays

  • Passover

    • This major holiday, which begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan, honors the delivery of the Jewish people from slavery in Egypt.

    • During Passover, Jews abstain from foods prepared with yeast or any other leavening agent.

    • This holiday usually occurs during late March and early April.


Christianity

Christianity

  • Central to the Christian faith is the acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah, the Son of God.

  • In the Bible, the Old Testament told of a coming Messiah who died for the sins of the world.

  • The New Testament told that Jesus was the Messiah.


Christianity1

Christianity

  • Christians believe that Jesus was both God and man, born on earth to redeem the human race.

  • Christians accept and celebrate his teachings, which emphasize unfailing mercy and forgiveness.

  • Christians also believe that Jesus was betrayed by Judas Iscariot and condemned death.

  • Jesus was crucified on the cross. He died but then rose from the dead three days later. This act enabled humans to have salvation.

  • Christians anticipate the return, or Second Coming, of the risen Jesus.


Bible

Bible

  • Christians, by and large, accept the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  • The Bible is broken down into the Old Testament and the New Testament.

  • Another part of the Bible, not held by all Christians,is the Apocrypha.


Many denominations under christianity

Many Denominations under Christianity

  • There are three main branches in Christianity

    • 1. Roman Catholic Church

      • Roman Catholicism refers to the huge worldwide group of Christians who identify themselves as being in communion with the bishop of Rome, the pope.

      • Catholics make up roughly half of all Christians on the planet

    • 2. Orthodox Eastern Church

      • This church represents the dominant form of Christian worship in Greece and in a large region of eastern Europe.

    • 3. Protestant Churches

      • Protestantism is an umbrella term for a set of traditions that came into existence after the Protestant Reformation.


Protestant reformation

Protestant Reformation

  • The Protestant Reformation was first just an attempt to reform the Catholic Church.

  • Some Christians, headed by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others wanted to reform some practices of the Catholic Church like the sale of indulgences.

  • The Protestant Churches finally broke away from the Catholic Church and based their churches on faith, not works.


Christian holidays and celebrations

Christian Holidays and Celebrations

  • Christmas

    • This “Feast of the Nativity” is when Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus.

  • Epiphany

    • This holiday, celebrated each year on January 6, commemorates the visit of the Wise Men to the newborn Jesus. It also commemorates Jesus’ own baptism and the anniversary of his first miracle.


Christian holidays and celebrations1

Christian Holidays and Celebrations

  • Lent

    • This holiday is a season of repentance and fasting that serves as a spiritual preparation for the joy of the Easter festival.

  • Palm Sunday

    • This is the final Sunday of Lent and the last Sunday before Easter. It is a day of acclamation and rejoicing, but also of somber anticipation.

    • Palm Sunday marks the first day of Holy Week, the week in which the betrayal and suffering of Jesus are remembered.


Christian holidays and celebrations2

Christian Holidays and Celebrations

  • Good Friday

    • The Friday before Easter recalls the death of Jesus on the cross.

    • It has been marked by fasting and prayer.

  • Easter

    • This is the single most important holiday for Christians.

    • It celebrates the resurrection of Jesus after his crucifixion and proclaims the spiritual rebirth of believers through their union with the risen Christ.


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