Education in finland
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EDUCATION IN FINLAND. For the Greek Delegation 18 June 2013 Aapo Koukku Counsellor of Education Information and Financial Services www.oph.fi/english. Finland in brief. Independent since 1917 Member of the European Union 1995 Land area 338 145 km 2 188 000 lakes, 76 000 islands

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Education in finland

EDUCATION IN FINLAND

For the Greek Delegation

18 June 2013

Aapo Koukku

Counsellor of Education

Information and Financial Services

www.oph.fi/english


Education in finland

Finland in brief

  • Independent since 1917

  • Member of the European Union 1995

  • Land area 338 145 km2

  • 188 000 lakes, 76 000 islands

  • Population 5.4 million (17 inhabitants / km2)

  • Two official languages: Finnish (91.2%), Swedish (5.5%)

  • Sámi is the language of about 1 800 people (official status in 3 municipalities)

  • Religion: Lutheran (81.8%), orthodox (1.1%), others (1.2%), no religiousaffiliation (15.9%)

  • Immigrants: 3,6 % of population

    • GDP (PPP) per capita $ 37,990 (World Bank)

  • Main exports: electronics, forest industry, metal and engineering


Underlying educational understanding

Underlyingeducationalunderstanding

  • “The objective of Finnish education and cultural policy is to guarantee all people - irrespective of their ethnic origin, background or wealth - equal opportunities and rights to culture, free quality education, and prerequisites for full citizenship. (---) All people must have equal access to services of consistent quality. “ (Government Programme, 2011)

  • The goal for the Government is to make Finland the most competent country in the world by 2020. (Education and Research 2011-2016, A development plan. MoEC 2011)


Education in finland

  • Government’s five-year development plan, Education and Research 2011-2016 aims to promote equality and quality in education and support life-long learning, for example

  • ECEC – administrative and legislative reform

  • Reform of national time allocation and core curricula in general education

  • Efforts to reduce group size in basic education

  • Cooperation and flexibility in upper secondary education

  • Educational guarantee as part of the cross-administrative Youth Guarantee


Specificities of the finnish education system

Specificities of the Finnisheducationsystem

Culture supportive of learning / support to teaching and learning

No inspections, no high-stakes testing or national examinations in basic education

High-quality teachers, high status, professional respect, autonomy in the classroom

Compulsoryeducationstarts at 7, same for all, inclusive, flexible and takes into account pupils’ individual needs, no streamingnorabilitygrouping

Freeeducation

Trust

Public funding

Localdecisions

Decentralised

Central steering

Evolution

Co-operation

Culture of education


Education in finland

Finnish system is holistic and based on trustComparison between the Finnish and general western models

Source: Kupiainen, Hautamäki, Karjalainen: The FI education system and PISA, 2010.


Education in finland

FinnishEducation System, no dead-ends in the system

Apprenticeship

EARLY YEARS EDUCATION

AND CARE


Education in finland

IMMEDIATE CONTINUATION OF STUDIES 2011

GENERAL UPPER SECONDARY

49,6% (2005: 53,3%)

SCHOOL LEAVERS

(BASIC EDUCATION)

63 200 in total

VOCATIONAL UPPER

SECONDARY

41,2% (2005: 39,4%)

DID NOT CONTINUE IN STUDIES LEADING TO A QUALIFICATION OR DEGREE 9,1% (2005: 7,4%)


Education in finland

Administration and steering

Parliament

Municipalities or

Federations of

Municipalities

(Education

providers)

Regional:

Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment

Regional State Administrative Agencies

Government

Educationalinstitutions

Ministry

of Education

and Culture

FNBE


Central steering vs local decisions

Central steeringvslocaldecisions

  • Local

  • Educationalpriorities

  • Localcurricula

  • Alloc. of subsidies

  • Class size

  • Recruitment

  • Teacher”evaluation”

  • Qualityassurance

  • Central

  • Educationalpriorities

  • Min. timeallocation

  • National corecurricula

  • Size of statesubsidies


A steering system built on the principle of trust

A STEERING SYSTEM BUILT ON THE PRINCIPLE OF TRUST

  • Flexible and decentralisededucationaldecision-making, guiding principles being

    • common values, goals and high expectations

    • central monitoring of the whole system and support

    • local implementation and responsibility

  • Far-reaching financial autonomy of local authorities

  • No inspection, national tests or ranking lists in basic education

  • Focus on self-evaluation and cooperation, self-evaluation supported by national sample-based evaluations that are used for the development of education


Quality assurance based on steering not control

Qualityassurancebased on steering, notcontrol

  • Mandatoryself-evaluation: Educationprovidershave a statutoryduty to evaluatetheirownactivities.

  • National evaluations of learningoutcomesbased on samples, used for development.

  • National evaluationbodies and activities to bemerged into the Finnish Centre for Evaluation of Educationin 2014

  • Qualitycriteria a tool for localactors

  • Statistics, national and international evaluations as tools for evidence-informedpolicy-making

  • No inspectorateorstandardisedtestsprior to the MatriculationExamination


Important quality indicators

IMPORTANT QUALITY INDICATORS

  • High academic achievement, equal learning outcomes

    • PISA 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009

  • Small between and within school differences

  • Low drop-out (0.3% in basic education, 2-3% in general education and 9% in vocational upper secondary education)

  • Highly educated and motivated teachers

  • Effective use of resources

    • Around 6 % of GDP goes to education

    • 190 school days per year, 4 - 7 hours per day in compulsory education

    • Moderate amount of homework, no need for private lessons after school

    • Class repetition only 2 % in basic education


  • Compulsory instruction time is low

    Compulsoryinstructiontimeis low

    OECD Education at a Glance 2012


    Possible reasons behind the success

    Possiblereasonsbehind the success

    • The Finnish comprehensive school system that is based on the principle of equity

    • Supporting individual pupils (student-centred instruction, counselling, remedial teaching, SNE)

    • High quality university level teacher education and high attraction of teaching profession

    • Curricular flexibility and pedagogical freedom

      Source: Välijärvi & al. 2002 and 2007; Hautamäki & al. 2008


    Financing of education

    Financing of Education

    • Education is publiclyfunded and free at alllevelsfrompre-primary to highereducation

    • Adulteducation the onlyform of educationthatrequiresmodestpayments

    • Privateexpenditure 2.4 % of allexpenditure on the officialeducationsystem

    • In pre-primary and basiceducation the textbooks, daily meal and transportation for studentslivingfurtherawayfrom the schoolarefree

    • At secondarylevel and in HE the booksarepaidbystudents

    • At secondarylevelfreemeal for students, in HE mealsaresubsidisedby the state

    • Well-developedsystem of studygrants and loansexists (for full-timestudy in an uppersecondaryschool, VET institutionor HEI)


    Funding

    FUNDING

    • Majority of education is publicly funded

    • Two-tiered public funding

      - The State

      - The local authorities or other education providers

    • The State subsidy for operating costs (cover 31,42% in pre-primary and basic education; 41.89% in upper secondary and polytechnics)

    • Per capita funding system without earmarking

    • The funding criteria are the same irrespective of ownership

    • Basic education – completely free of charges for the pupils

    • Higher levels – payment for study materials, meals, transport

    • Financial aid for full-time studies


    Financing of vet

    Financing of VET

    • VET is financed from the budget of the Ministry of Education and Culture.

    • Financing is based on calculatory unit prices and granted directly to authorised VET providers. The funding criteria are the same irrespective of the form of ownership.

    • The annual funding is based on the number of students and the calculated unit price.

    • The unit prices are determined on the basis of training costs within different fields and calculated for each provider separately. Unit price is affected by different factors e.g. actual current expenditure of education at national level (national average) and the education fields of the education provider.

    • VET providers are independent in their financial decisions.

    • Vocational upper secondary education and training is co-financed by the State and municipalities (state 42 % and municipalities 58 %).

    • Performance based funding forms 3 % of the total funding of all VET providers

    • 2011 the amount of PBF is some 50 M€

      .


    The performance based financing system of vet

    FINANCING OF VET

    STATUATORY

    CORE FUNDING

    PERFORMANCE-BASED

    FINANCING

    BASED ON UNIT COSTS

    (€/STUDENT/YEAR)

    • BASED ON OPERATIONAL OUTCOME

    • outcome

    • teacher competence

    • staff development

    • -

    BASED ON QUALITY ASSESMENT

    (EFQM)

    - SPECIAL THEMES

    (qualitative)

    OUTCOME BASED FUNDS

    QUALITY AWARD

    The performance-based financing system of VET


    Education in finland

    Educationalfunding

    Operativecosts per pupil/student/year in 2011

    basiceducation6 710 € (5 341-20 2531)

    general uppersecondary 7 138 € (6 231-9 4611)

    vocationaluppersecondary11 315 € (7 936-16 5522)

    polytechnics 8 005 € (6 786- 11 070)

    1difference betweenregions

    2 differencebetweenfieldsof VET

    Source: FNBE Statistical yearbook 2012


    Educational expenditure

    EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE

    • Public spending in 2009 (incl. public subsidies such as scholarships and grants to students), all levels of education

    • of GDP

      • Finland 6.8%

      • Japan 3.8%

      • Korea 5.0%

      • OECD average 5.8%

      • EU 21 average 5.8%

  • of public expenditure

    • Finland 12.2%

    • Japan 8.9%

    • Korea 15.3%

    • OECD average 13.0%

    • EU 21 average 11.5%

      Source: Education at a Glance 2012, OECD


  • The youth guarantee in finland

    The YouthGuarantee in Finland

    Background: among 20-29 yearolds 120 000 havecompletedonlybasiceducation; 55 000 youngunemployedjobseekers.

    The youthguaranteewilloffereveryoneunder the age of 25, as well as recentgraduatesunderage 30 an employment, a studyplace, a place in on-the-jobtrainingor in a rehabilitationwithin 3 monthsafterbecomingunemployed.

    3 Ministriesareresponsible: Education and Culture, Employment and the Economy, Social Affairs and Health.

    • Morestudyplaces in VET

    • New selectioncriteria into VET: priority to graduatesfrombasiceducation and thosewithoutupperlevelvocationalqualification

    • Localauthoritiesresponsible for counsellingservices

    • Support to languagelearning for youngimmigrants

    • Employerswillreceivehighercompensation for apprenticeshiptraining

    • Young adults´ skillsprogramme

    • Workshop activities and outreachyouthwork as means of support

      Funding: appr 350 M€ for the period 2013-16


    Education in finland

    YouthGuaranteewilloffereveryoneunder 25, as well as recentgraduatesunder 30, a place in employment, education, on-the-jobtrainingorrehabilitationwithin 3 monthsafterbecomingunemployed.

    Morestudyplaces in VET

    Young Adults’ SkillsProgramme

    A place in furthereducationguaranteed to allwhohave just completedbasiceducation

    Youthguarantee

    PPPP

    FUND

    I

    NG

    Employers to receivehighercompensation for apprenticeshiptraining

    Workshop activities and outreachyouthwork as means of support

    Support to youthemployment

    Support to languagelearning of youngimmigrants

    New selectioncriteria

    Counsellingservices for basiceducationgraduates


    General objectives of finnish vet

    General objectives of Finnish VET

    • knowledge and skills necessary for vocational competence and (self-)employment

    • support for personal growth and citizenship

    • knowledge and skills needed in further studies and in life-long learning

    • close co-operation with the world of work when planning and implementing vocational education


    Education in finland

    Administration of vocational education and training (VET)

    The National Education Evaluation Council


    Spotlight on vet in finland

    Spotlight on VET in Finland

    • Education philosophy is based on delegation of responsibility to local level.

      relatively autonomous VET-providers

    • VET provided by registered VET providers – licence from Ministry of Education

      municipalities, joint municipal federations or private organisations

    • Financing system based on national unit prices based on costs in different sectors of VET

      lump sums without "earmarks" for the VET-provider

    • Financial contributions to VET providers from MoE

      statutory division of costs at national level

      in IVET: state 42 % - municipalities together 58 %

      in CVET mainly by state

    • National-level evaluations with no inspectorate

    • In 2011, total operating costs of vocational institutions amounted to 1.700 million €


    Spotlight on vet in finland1

    Spotlight on VET in Finland

    • Mainly within institutions (work-based learning included)

      • apprenticeship training expanding

    • Around 140 VET-providers, a nation-wide network of vocational institutions

      • Instruction for Swedish-speakers either in Swedish-speaking or bilingual institutions

    • On IVET about 165 000 students every year, 70 000 new students

      • After basic education about 44 % of school-leavers continue in IVET (51 % in general upper secondary education)

      • After initial vocational education about 68 % of students enter to the labour market and about 9 % students continue studies (placement rate about 77 %)

      • Drop-out rate below 9 %

      • IVET: tuition and meals free of charge, CVET: small fees

      • An open pathway from upper secondary vocational qualifications to polytechnics and universities – general eligibility to HE


    Trends in vet in finland

    Trends in VET in Finland

    • VET is an attractivechoice – not a secondchoice

    • Almost 50 % of comprehensiveschoolleaverscontinue in uppersecondaryvocationaleducation

    • Number of students in initial VET hasincreased (from 148 000 to 172 500 during 2004-2011)


    Vocational education

    VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    • INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

    • Qualifications were reformed in 2008-2010

    • 52 qualifications, 121 programmes

    • can be completed in the form of school-based training or apprenticeship training

    • Scope 120 credits (3 years)

      • 90 credits of professional studies

      • min 20 credits of on-the-job-learning

      • skills demonstrations

      • final year project

        FURTHER VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

  • Further vocational qualifications (ca. 189)

  • Specialist vocational qualifications (ca. 130)


  • Education in finland

    National Requirements (3 years/120 credits) for each vocational qualificationat upper secondary level (2008)

    • Vocational units90 credits(including at least 20 credits of on-the-job learning)

    • - Basic and field-specific study units (compulsory)

    • specialising study units (partly optional)

    • - other optional units (decided by VET provider)

    Core units (common to all)20 credits

    such as languages, math, physics, chemistry

    • Free-choice units10 credits

    • individual choice


    Education and qualification requirements for vet teachers in finland

    Education and Qualification Requirements for VET Teachers in Finland

    • Appropriate Master’s degree or polytechnic degree (or highest possible qualification in their own occupation)

    • Minimum of three years’ of working experience in their own field

    • Pedagogical studies with a scope of 60 ECTS

    Vocational teacher education builds on degree and work experience


    Being a vet teacher in finland

    Being a VET teacher in Finland…

    • Teaching profession has high esteem

    • VET teachers seen as their own specific group within the teaching profession

    • Strong connection with working life


    Design assessment validation and recognition of competences learning outcomes in vet

    Design, assessment, validation and recognition of competences / learningoutcomes in VET


    Development of finnish vet in european cooperation

    Development of Finnish VET in European cooperation

    • European Qualification Framework (EQF)

    • European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET)

    • Common Quality Assurance Framework (CQAF)

    • European guidelines for validation of non-formal and informal


    Finnish nqf levels

    Finnish NQF levels


    Education system in figures 2011

    Educationsystem in figures, 2011

    Statistics Finland: Oppilaitostilastot 2012


    Most teachers are required a master s degree

    Mostteachersarerequired a master’sdegree

    Kindergartenteachers 180 ECTS (3 years)

    Classteachers 300 ECTS (5 years)

    Subjectteachers 300 ECTS (5-6 years)

    Teachers of vocationalstudies: Master’s/Bachelor’s+workexperinece+pedagogicalstudies of 60 ECTS)

    Principals:teacher education + e.g. certificate in educational administration


    Teacher profession in finland

    TEACHER PROFESSION IN FINLAND

    • Popular profession among young people; only about 10-12 % of applicants can be admitted to teacher studies

    • Demanding profession; Master’s degree required

    • Autonomous and creative profession

      • curriculum process of the school and municipality

      • teachers are responsible for planning of the work of their own school and autonomous in choosing their methods and materials

      • emphasis is in guiding the learning process of students and meeting the needs of all different learners

    • Teachers are trusted in the society and respected and supported in their work


    Education in finland

    TeachertraininginstitutionscanselectheavilyIntake into teachereducation2012 (% of thosewhoapplied)

    • Class teacher education 12 %

    • Subject teacher education 10 %-53 %

    • Vocational teacher education 30 %

    Statistics Finland, universities


    Education in finland

    OECD: Education at a Glance 2012


    Teacher and principal salaries in finland permanent contract average gross salaries per month 2011

    Teacher and principalsalaries in Finland(permanentcontract, averagegrosssalaries per month 2011)

    kindergarten teacher2,452 €

    class teacher, primaryeducation3,357 €

    subject teacher, lowersecondary3,664 €

    subject teacher, general uppersecondary 4,128 €

    VET teacher 3,813 €

    principal, basiceducation4,894 €

    principal, general uppersecondary 5,613 €

    Averagesalary in the municipalsector in Finland 2011: 2,848 € (men 3,319 €, women 2,728 €)

    Source: Satistics Finland


    Keys to success how we see it

    KEYS TO SUCCESS – HOW WE SEE IT

    LEARNING CULTURE

    • Autonomy

    • empowerment of municipalities and schools

    • spirit of trust and support

    • interactive, cooperative way of working

    HIGH STANDARDS

    • Professionalism of teachers

    • high status and quality of teachers

    • high quality of teacher education

    • high quality of instruction

    • Supportive ethos

    • minimizing low achievement

    • early intervention

    • individual support

    • active role of student

    • good student – teacher relationship

    COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Attainable for all, flexible structure and curriculum strategy, non-selective, inclusive, central steering, local impelentation and responsibility


    Education in finland1

    Education in Finland

    www.minedu.fi

    Ministry of Education and Culture

    information in Finnish, Swedish and English

    www.oph.fi

    Finnish National Board of Education

    information in Finnish, Swedish and English

    [email protected]


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