Brain computer interface
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Brain Computer Interface. The Dream. Controlling the physical world with our thoughts has always been the stuff of science fiction and dreams. In today ’ s world, small demonstrations of such feats abound. Commercial BCIs Commercial headsets for gaming NeuroSky Emotiv EPOC.

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Brain Computer Interface

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Brain computer interface

Brain Computer Interface


The dream

The Dream

  • Controlling the physical world with our thoughts has always been the stuff of science fiction and dreams.

  • In today’s world, small demonstrations of such feats abound.

    • Commercial BCIs

    • Commercial headsets for gaming

      • NeuroSky

      • Emotiv EPOC


Sensing the brain

Sensing the Brain

  • EEG

    • measures the electrical signals produced by nerve cells in your brain

  • fMRI

    • Detects blood flow in the brain to identify areas of activity; a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal.

  • NIRS

    • Detects near IR light absorption to identify areas of activity, another BOLD signal.

  • Others

    • CAT scan

    • PET

    • phMRI

    • TMS


Early efforts

Early Efforts


Brain imaging

Brain Imaging


Animal brains

Animal brains

  • Brain stem - controls the reflexes and automatic functions.

  • Cerebellum - coordinates limb movements.

  • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland - controls body temperature and behavioral responses such as feeding, drinking, sexual response, aggression and pleasure.

  • Cerebrum - integrates information from all of the sense organs, initiates motor functions, controls emotions and holds memory and thought processes.


Cerebral cortex

Cerebral Cortex

Parietal Lobe - involved in the reception and processing of sensory information from the body.Frontal Lobe - involved with decision-making, problem solving, and planning.Occipital Lobe - involved with vision.Temporal Lobe - involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language.


Somatosensory motor cortex

Somatosensory & Motor Cortex

Somatosensory

Motor


Your electric brain

Your Electric Brain

  • Brains are filled with neurons.

  • Each neuron receives electrical inputs from about 1000 other neurons.

  • Impulses are added together leading to generation of an electrical discharge called an action potential.

  • electric signals (i.e., action potentials) zip from neuron to neuron as fast as 250 mph

  • Neurons communicate at structures called synapses.

  • Information moves around the brain via electrical activity but communication between neurons is chemical.


Brain computer interface

EEG

  • An EEG records electrical signals from the brain

    • Measures postsynaptic potentials of neurons, via electrodes on the scalp

  • An EEG detects the summed ionic currents of thousands of pyramidal neurons beneath each electrode.

  • The signals relayed to the EEG are typically amplified 10,000 times and filtered.


Brain wave types

Brain Wave Types

  • EEGs record brain waves which are oscillating electrical voltages in the brain measuring a few millivolts.

  • There are six widely recognized brain waves:

    • Delta: 1-4 Hz.

    • Theta: 4-7 Hz.

    • Alpha: 8-12 Hz.

    • Mu rhythm is alpha-range activity that is seen over the sensorimotor cortex.

    • Beta:12-30 Hz.

    • Gamma: 30–100 Hz.


Bci inputs

BCI Inputs

  • Slow cortical activation

  • Mu and Beta rhythms

  • performance of different cognitive tasks

  • imagination of movement of different parts of the body

  • Steady-state evoked potential – the response of the brain to a constant stimulus, in which the brain activity has the same frequency as the stimulating frequency

  • visually evoked P300 potential – “oddball” response

Training


Electrode placement

Electrode Placement


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