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Brain Computer Interface. The Dream. Controlling the physical world with our thoughts has always been the stuff of science fiction and dreams. In today ’ s world, small demonstrations of such feats abound. Commercial BCIs Commercial headsets for gaming NeuroSky Emotiv EPOC.

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Presentation Transcript
the dream
The Dream
  • Controlling the physical world with our thoughts has always been the stuff of science fiction and dreams.
  • In today’s world, small demonstrations of such feats abound.
    • Commercial BCIs
    • Commercial headsets for gaming
      • NeuroSky
      • Emotiv EPOC
sensing the brain
Sensing the Brain
  • EEG
    • measures the electrical signals produced by nerve cells in your brain
  • fMRI
    • Detects blood flow in the brain to identify areas of activity; a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal.
  • NIRS
    • Detects near IR light absorption to identify areas of activity, another BOLD signal.
  • Others
    • CAT scan
    • PET
    • phMRI
    • TMS
animal brains
Animal brains
  • Brain stem - controls the reflexes and automatic functions.
  • Cerebellum - coordinates limb movements.
  • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland - controls body temperature and behavioral responses such as feeding, drinking, sexual response, aggression and pleasure.
  • Cerebrum - integrates information from all of the sense organs, initiates motor functions, controls emotions and holds memory and thought processes.
cerebral cortex
Cerebral Cortex

Parietal Lobe - involved in the reception and processing of sensory information from the body.Frontal Lobe - involved with decision-making, problem solving, and planning.Occipital Lobe - involved with vision.Temporal Lobe - involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language.

your electric brain
Your Electric Brain
  • Brains are filled with neurons.
  • Each neuron receives electrical inputs from about 1000 other neurons.
  • Impulses are added together leading to generation of an electrical discharge called an action potential.
  • electric signals (i.e., action potentials) zip from neuron to neuron as fast as 250 mph
  • Neurons communicate at structures called synapses.
  • Information moves around the brain via electrical activity but communication between neurons is chemical.
slide10
EEG
  • An EEG records electrical signals from the brain
    • Measures postsynaptic potentials of neurons, via electrodes on the scalp
  • An EEG detects the summed ionic currents of thousands of pyramidal neurons beneath each electrode.
  • The signals relayed to the EEG are typically amplified 10,000 times and filtered.
brain wave types
Brain Wave Types
  • EEGs record brain waves which are oscillating electrical voltages in the brain measuring a few millivolts.
  • There are six widely recognized brain waves:
    • Delta: 1-4 Hz.
    • Theta: 4-7 Hz.
    • Alpha: 8-12 Hz.
    • Mu rhythm is alpha-range activity that is seen over the sensorimotor cortex.
    • Beta:12-30 Hz.
    • Gamma: 30–100 Hz.
bci inputs
BCI Inputs
  • Slow cortical activation
  • Mu and Beta rhythms
  • performance of different cognitive tasks
  • imagination of movement of different parts of the body
  • Steady-state evoked potential – the response of the brain to a constant stimulus, in which the brain activity has the same frequency as the stimulating frequency
  • visually evoked P300 potential – “oddball” response

Training

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