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Announcements. Reminder: exam #1 a week from today Need to check with me regarding clinical paper topic. Deadline Oct. 3 rd Upcoming assignment: parent interview. See handout. Research Methods. Types of Investigations. Naturalistic or Observational Studies

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announcements
Announcements
  • Reminder: exam #1 a week from today
  • Need to check with me regarding clinical paper topic. Deadline Oct. 3rd
  • Upcoming assignment: parent interview. See handout.
types of investigations
Types of Investigations
  • Naturalistic or Observational Studies
      • (correlational studies; studies with quasi-experimental designs)
    • Characteristics of correlational studies
    • Relationships/Causality

e.g. Harvard students/SAT

e.g. TV watching and aggression in children (see next slide)

tv and aggression
TV and aggression
  • Headlines:

“TV Time Yields Violence” (The Boston Globe)

“Just an hour of TV time a day leads to violence” (Reuters)

relationships causality
Relationships/Causality
  • Three ways that relationships can work:
    • TV causes aggression
    • Aggression causes TV watching

(e.g. no friends, time to kill)

    • Third variable causes them both

Example: health of babies born to smoking and nonsmoking parents

classic experimental studies
Classic Experimental Studies

Need to meet two conditions:

  • Random assignment to groups
  • Experimental control

Steps to design an experimental study

  • Operationalize independent and dependent variables
  • Randomly assign participants to groups
classic experimental studies1
Classic Experimental Studies

Conclusions/limitations:

  • Greatest strength is causality
  • Main problem is inability to use random assignment
  • generalizability
single subject design
Single Subject Design

(Case studies and within subject designs)

  • Case studies
    • Used to figure out what might be important
    • Used when situation or disorder is very rare
  • Single subject designs
    • Used to assess change in behavior related to an intervention
    • A – B – A –B design
time frame of studies
Time Frame of Studies
  • Cross sectional research
      • Cheaper, easier but can’t look at change over time
  • Prospective longitudinal design
      • Capture developmental processes but time-consuming
  • Accelerated longitudinal design
      • Cohort sequential design
pedro carroll cowan divorce intervention study
Pedro-Carroll & Cowan divorce intervention study

Intro.:

  • Establishes importance of research
  • Reviews prior research
  • Highlights gaps, builds
  • Didn’t address developmental impact of divorce
  • Doesn’t address divorce vs. prior conditions
  • Why chose particular areas??
divorce intervention study cont
Divorce intervention study cont’

Methods:

strengths:

  • Low dropout rate
  • Control group and random assignment
  • Range of sources of info./measurements

weaknesses:

  • Expectancy effects
  • Variability in post divorce time
  • No attention control group – reactivity?
  • No info. on measures used
review for exam
Review for exam

Know everything

  • Developmental psychopathology model
  • Risk/resilience/protective factors
  • Several questions on research methods and interpretation of findings
    • Be able to design a study
    • Be able to interpret results from each method (what can you know and not)
  • Divorce article and discussion in class
  • Importance of development in child psychopathology
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