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Announcements. Reminder: exam #1 a week from today Need to check with me regarding clinical paper topic. Deadline Oct. 3 rd Upcoming assignment: parent interview. See handout. Research Methods. Types of Investigations. Naturalistic or Observational Studies

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Announcements

Announcements

  • Reminder: exam #1 a week from today

  • Need to check with me regarding clinical paper topic. Deadline Oct. 3rd

  • Upcoming assignment: parent interview. See handout.


Research methods

Research Methods


Types of investigations

Types of Investigations

  • Naturalistic or Observational Studies

    • (correlational studies; studies with quasi-experimental designs)

  • Characteristics of correlational studies

  • Relationships/Causality

    e.g. Harvard students/SAT

    e.g. TV watching and aggression in children (see next slide)


Tv and aggression

TV and aggression

  • Headlines:

    “TV Time Yields Violence” (The Boston Globe)

    “Just an hour of TV time a day leads to violence” (Reuters)


Relationships causality

Relationships/Causality

  • Three ways that relationships can work:

    • TV causes aggression

    • Aggression causes TV watching

      (e.g. no friends, time to kill)

    • Third variable causes them both

      Example: health of babies born to smoking and nonsmoking parents


Classic experimental studies

Classic Experimental Studies

Need to meet two conditions:

  • Random assignment to groups

  • Experimental control

    Steps to design an experimental study

  • Operationalize independent and dependent variables

  • Randomly assign participants to groups


Classic experimental studies1

Classic Experimental Studies

Conclusions/limitations:

  • Greatest strength is causality

  • Main problem is inability to use random assignment

  • generalizability


Single subject design

Single Subject Design

(Case studies and within subject designs)

  • Case studies

    • Used to figure out what might be important

    • Used when situation or disorder is very rare

  • Single subject designs

    • Used to assess change in behavior related to an intervention

    • A – B – A –B design


Time frame of studies

Time Frame of Studies

  • Cross sectional research

    • Cheaper, easier but can’t look at change over time

  • Prospective longitudinal design

    • Capture developmental processes but time-consuming

  • Accelerated longitudinal design

    • Cohort sequential design


  • Pedro carroll cowan divorce intervention study

    Pedro-Carroll & Cowan divorce intervention study

    Intro.:

    • Establishes importance of research

    • Reviews prior research

    • Highlights gaps, builds

    • Didn’t address developmental impact of divorce

    • Doesn’t address divorce vs. prior conditions

    • Why chose particular areas??


    Divorce intervention study cont

    Divorce intervention study cont’

    Methods:

    strengths:

    • Low dropout rate

    • Control group and random assignment

    • Range of sources of info./measurements

      weaknesses:

    • Expectancy effects

    • Variability in post divorce time

    • No attention control group – reactivity?

    • No info. on measures used


    Review for exam

    Review for exam

    Know everything

    • Developmental psychopathology model

    • Risk/resilience/protective factors

    • Several questions on research methods and interpretation of findings

      • Be able to design a study

      • Be able to interpret results from each method (what can you know and not)

    • Divorce article and discussion in class

    • Importance of development in child psychopathology


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