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الفصل 3 خصائص الأحماض والقواعد PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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الفصل 3 خصائص الأحماض والقواعد. ا لصف ال ثاني عشر العلمي. القسم (1-3). خصائص الأحماض والقواعد. خصائص الأحماض والقواعد. أحماض شائعة في الغذاء :. * حمض اللاكتيك في اللبن. * حمض الأسيتيك في الخل. * حمض السيتريك في الحمضيات. * حمض الطرطريك في العنب. * حمض الفوسفوريك في المشروبات الغازية.

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الفصل 3 خصائص الأحماض والقواعد

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3


(1-3)


:

*

* .

* .

* .

* .


:

* .

* .

* .

* .

* .


* .

* .

* .

*

* .


:

.

:

* :HI , HBr , HCl , HF


:

( )

1-

2-

( )

3-


H

F

( )

1-

2-

( )

3-


HF

HCl

HBr

HI


:

.


NO2-

HNO2

NO3-

HNO3

H3PO3

PO33-

H3PO4

PO4-

H2SO3

SO32-

H2SO4

SO42-


HClO

CIO-

CIO2-

HClO2

CIO3-

HClO3

CIO4-

HClO4

HIO3

IO3-


:

:

:

:

:


* .

* .

* .

*

.

* .


:

H+ .

:

OH- .


:

.

:

HNO3

+

H2O

H3O+

+

NO3-


-

+

+

H2O

HNO3

+

H3O+

NO3-


:

HCl

+

H2O

H3O+

+

Cl-

.


:

.

:

* .

* .


.( ).

H3O+

Cl-

HCl

H2O

+

+

).

Cl-


:

.

( ) .


CN-

HCN

H2O

+

H3O+

+

CN-

HCN


/

H3O+

Cl-

HCl

H2O

+

+

H3O+

ClO4-

H2O

HClO4

+

+

H3O+

Br-

HBr

H2O

+

+

H3O+

l-

Hl

H2O

+

+

H3O+

HSO4-

H2O

+

H2SO4

+

H3O+

ClO3-

H2O

HClO3

+

+


/

SO42-

H2O

+

HSO4-

+

H3O+

H2O

H2PO4-

H3PO4

+

H3O+

+

F-

HF

H2O

+

H3O+

+

H2O

CH3COOH

+

CH3COO-

H3O+

+


/

H3O+

HCO3-

H2O

+

H2CO3

+

H3O+

HS-

H2O

+

H2S

+

CN-

HCN

H2O

+

H3O+

+

H3O+

CO32-

H2O

+

HCO3-

+


OH-

H2O

NaOH(S)

Na+

OH-

+

H2O

Ca(OH)2(S)

Ca2+

2 OH-

+


OH- . :

NH3

+

H2O

OH-

NH4+

+


:

( ) .

.


:

.

( )


NaOH

Na+

OH-

+

KOH

K+

OH-

+

RbOH

Rb+

OH-

+

CsOH

Cs+

OH-

+


/

H2O

Ca(OH)2

Ca2+

2 OH-

+

H2O

Sr(OH)2

Sr2+

2 OH-

+

H2O

Ba(OH)2

Ba2+

2 OH-

+


NH3

+

H2O

OH-

NH4+

+

C6H5NH2

+

H2O

OH-

C6H5NH3+

+


(2-3)

-


(2-3)

-


:

.

:

.


:

: ( ) H+.

: ( ) H+.

NH3

HCl

H

Cl-

+

NH4+

+


:

:

:Cl:

:O:

H

H

H

+

:

:

H

+

:

:

-

:O:

H

H

:Cl:

+

:

:

H


H

:

:

:Cl:

:N:

H

H

H

+

:

:

H

+

H

:

:

-

:N:

H

H

:Cl:

+

:

:

H


:

:

:O:

H

:N:

H

H

H

+

:

:

H

H

-

+

H

:

:

:O:

:N:

H

H

+

:

H

:

H


:

( ) .

:

HCl

HNO3

HClO4


HCl

HCl

Cl-

H3O+

H2O

HCl

H3O+

Cl-

+

+


:

.

:

H2SO4

H3PO4


( ) .


:

:-

:

H3O+

HSO4-

H2O

+

H2SO4

+

:-

( ) :

HSO4-

H2O

+

H3O+

+

SO42-


H3O+

HSO4-

SO42-

2


: .

.

: .


H2O

H2PO4-

H3PO4

+

H3O+

+

H2PO4-

H2O

+

H3O+

+

HPO42-

HPO42-

H2O

+

H3O+

+

PO43-

H3PO4

PO43-

HPO42-

H2PO4-

H3O+


:

. .

H2PO4-

>

HPO42-

>

PO43-

.


:

.

:

.


H

.

.

:N.

H

.

.

.

H

N 7 (2 ,5) H 1.


:

:F:

.

:

.

:

:N.

F:

.

.

.

:

:

F

:

N 7 (2 , 5) F 9 (2 , 7 )

4


:

:F:

.

:

.

:F

:

.

B.

.

.

:

:

F

:

B 5 (2 , 3) F 9 (2 , 7 )

3


:

:NH3

H+

[ H - NH3 ]+

+

NH4+

2 :NH3

Ag+

+

[ NH3 Ag - NH3 ]+


: :


:

:

-

:F:

:F:

-

:

:

:

:

:

:

:B

:B

:F:

:F:

:F

:F

:

:

:

:

:

:

:F:

:F:

:

:

+

BF3

F-

+

BF4-


:

:

:F:

:F:

:

:

:

:

:B

:B

:F

:F

:

:

:

:

H

H

:F:

:F:

:

:

:

:

:N:

:N:

H

H

:

:

H

H

: :

+


(3-3)

-


-

:

:

- .

F-

HF

H2O

H3O+

+

+


:

- .

F-

HF

H2O

H3O+

+

+


:

F-

HF

H2O

H3O+

+

+


HF

H2O

H3O+

+

F-

+

1

2

2

1

HF

1

F-

H2O

H3O+

2


:

.

Cl-

HCl

H2O

H3O+

+

+


Cl- .

Cl-

.

HCl

+

H2O

H3O+

Cl-

+


: :

HClO4

+

H2O

H3O+

ClO4-

+

.


H2O

CH3COOH

+

H3O+

+

CH3COO-

.


.

.


:

H3O+

HSO4-

H2O

+

H2SO4

+

1

2

1

2

NH3

+

H2O

OH-

NH4+

+

1

2

1

2

.


-OH :

-OH :

1- : NaOH .

2- : HOCl .

3- : Cr(OH)3 .


-OH .

.

O-H .


-OH

1- :

.

2- -OH :

.


: -OH .

2- O-H .


:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

H:O:Cl:

H:O:Cl:O:

H:O:Cl:O:

H:O:Cl:O:

:O:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:O:

:O:

-OH .

1

2

-OH

3


OH :

Cr(OH)2

Cr(OH)3

H2CrO4

: .

.

Cr(OH)2

Cr(OH)3

H2CrO4

2

4

3


O

II

CH3- C- OH

H

I

CH3- C -OH

I

H

:

-OH .

1


- OH .


: .

HCl

+

NaOH

NaCl

H2O

+

NaOH(aq)

Na+

OH-

+

HCl

H2O

H3O+

Cl-

+

+


NaOH(aq)

Na+

OH-

+

HCl

H2O

H3O+

Cl-

+

+

:

H3O+

Cl-

Na+

OH-

+

+

+

Na+

Cl-

+

2H2O

+

:

H3O+

2H2O

+

OH-


:

.

+ +

:

.


:

SO3,SO2 , NO2 ,NO .

SO3

H2O

+

H2SO4


3 3 : 89

1-

H2CO3

+

Sr(OH)2

H2O

SrCO3

+

HClO4

+

NaOH

H2O

NaClO4

+


2

HBr

+

Ba(OH)2

2

H2O

BaBr2

+

2

NaHCO3

+

H2SO4

2

H2O

2

CO2

Na2SO4

+

+


3- -OH .

- O-H


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