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War Expands in Vietnam. The Vietnam War Years (1954-1975) Chapter 30, Section 2. Essential Question:. Is it right for one group to force its’ beliefs on to another group, even if its’ for their benefit?. Lyndon B. Johnson.

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War expands in vietnam

War Expands in Vietnam

The Vietnam War Years

(1954-1975)

Chapter 30, Section 2


Essential question
Essential Question:

  • Is it right for one group to force its’ beliefs on to another group, even if its’ for their benefit?


Lyndon b johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson

  • When LBJ Took Over As President (1963), South Vietnam was Very Close to Becoming Communist

  • LBJ’s Military Advisors Wanted to Bomb North Vietnam

  • Wanted to Stop Ho Chi Minh from Supporting the Viet Cong in S. Vietnam

  • Why Can’t a President Just Bomb a Country? Who’s Approval Does the President Need? Why?


The gulf of tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin

  • Story of the U.S.S. Maddox

  • Fired Upon in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2nd, 1964

  • Fired Upon Again on August 4th, 1964

  • No One Can Confirm the 2nd Attack

  • LBJ Asked Congress to Declare War! Hmm……


The gulf of tonkin resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

  • After the 2nd Attack On the U.S.S. Maddox, LBJ Asked Congress for a Declaration of War!

  • BTW, Firing on a U.S. Ship is an Act of War

  • Congress Did NOT Declare War

  • Congress Gave LBJ the Power to use “Military Force in Vietnam”

  • The Vietnam “Conflict” Started


Escalation in vietnam
Escalation in Vietnam

  • LBJ Immediately Began Bombing North Vietnam

  • Escalation is the Policy of Increasing Military Operations

  • U.S. Troops Increased From 75,000 in 1965 to 536,000 by 1968

  • General Westmoreland Was the Commander of the Armed Forces in Vietnam


Vietnam a frustrating war
Vietnam: A Frustrating War

  • Problems Fighting in Vietnam:

    • Vietnam Was a Limited War: U.S. Feared Bringing China into the War & Starting WWIII

    • Most U.S. Soldiers Were Young (19) & Inexperienced: Soldiers Only Had to Serve 1 Year (6 Months in the Field Fighting) Then They Could Go Home

    • Not Enough Experienced Officers & Soldiers to Fight in the Vietnam Jungles = Many Deaths


A frustrating war
A Frustrating War…

  • Problems Fighting in Vietnam:

    • There Was No Frontline: Viet Cong Were the South Vietnamese/Mixed in with the General Population

    • Guerrilla Warfare: Viet Cong Used Guerrilla Warfare/Knew They Couldn’t Defeat the U.S. Military Head On

    • Always Favors the People Who Know the Land: Ho Chi Minh Trail, Booby Traps, Ambushes & Surprise Attacks

      • American Revolution

      • Iraq & Afghanistan Today


A frustrating war1
A Frustrating War…

  • Problems Fighting in Vietnam:

    • Land and Climate of Vietnam:

      • 100 Degrees and Humid All the Time

      • Terrain is Jungle/ Swamps

      • Jungle/Guerrilla Warfare

    • Viet Cong Were a Dedicated Enemy:

      • “One Man Defending His Homeland is Better Than 10 Men Fighting to Take It Over”


Napalm agent orange
Napalm & Agent Orange

  • Both Were Used to Either Burn or Destroy the Jungle to Find the Enemy (Viet Cong) & Ho Chi Minh Trail

  • Napalm = Jellied Gasoline

  • Agent Orange = Orange Chemical That Kills Vegetation:

    • Helped Destroy Hideouts & Food Supplies of the Viet Cong

    • Destroyed Innocent Civilians Homes and Food

    • U.S. Soldiers Were Exposed To It (Cancerous)

    • Ruined the Environment


Effects of agent orange
Effects of Agent Orange

  • Too Grotesque to Show You!


Search destroy missions
Search & Destroy Missions

  • American War Tactic

  • American Soldiers Would Hunt Down Viet Cong by Burning and/or Bombing Villages

  • Innocent South Vietnamese Lost Everything (Homes/ Food/Supplies)

    • Turned Against the U.S.

  • Are We Really “Winning the Hearts & Minds of the People?”


The tet offensive 1968
The Tet Offensive (1968)

  • On January 30th and 31st, 1968, The Communists Launched a Surprise Attack on More Than 100Cities & Towns in South Vietnam

  • Viet Cong Living in South Vietnam Planned the Attack

  • Smuggled Weapons into Each City and Dressed as Regular South Vietnamese Citizens

  • Turning Point of the War


The tet offensive 19681
The Tet Offensive (1968)

  • Despite the Surprise Attack, the Viet Cong & the Communists Lost:

    • Gained No Cities

    • Lost 45,000 Troops

    • U.S. Lost 1,100

  • Physical Loss, Mental Victory:

    • U.S. Realized They Can’t Win

    • Americans Start to Question Why Are We Even in Vietnam?

  • General Westmoreland Asked for 206,000 More American Troops After the Tet Offensive


Lbj changes war policy
LBJ Changes War Policy

  • Following the Tet Offensive, LBJ Tells General Westmoreland No More Troops

  • Stops the U.S. Bombing of North Vietnam

  • Announces U.S. Would Seek Peace with North Vietnam (1968)

  • Announces He Will Not Run for Reelection in 1968


My lai massacre
My Lai Massacre

  • On March 16th, 1968, American Soldiers Went Out on a Search and Destroy Mission Looking for Viet Cong

  • Lt. William Calley, Jr. Rounded Up the Village of My Lai (Innocent Civilians) & Massacred Them

  • A U.S. Helicopter Flying Over Ordered the U.S. Troops to Cease Fire (Helicopter Fired Warning Shots)


Hypothesize
Hypothesize

  • How do YOU think the American public reacted when they found out what happened at My Lai?


Lt william calley jr
Lt.William Calley, Jr.

  • Lt. William Calley, Jr. Ordered the Massacre

  • Think Nuremberg Trials

  • Faced Charges of Crimes Against Humanity

  • Found Guilty:

    • Pardoned in 1976


Essential question1
Essential Question:

  • Is it right for one group to force its’ beliefs on to another group, even if its’ for their benefit?


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