Anatomy of the respiratory system
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Anatomy of the Respiratory System . Function . Brings oxygenated air in to the body for delivery to the blood cells. Expels waste products that have been returned to the lungs by the blood . Upper and lower respiratory tract . The nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and the trachea

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Function
Function

  • Brings oxygenated air in to the body for delivery to the blood cells.

  • Expels waste products that have been returned to the lungs by the blood


Upper and lower respiratory tract
Upper and lower respiratory tract

  • The nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and the trachea

  • The bronchial tree and lungs



Nasal septum
Nasal septum

  • A wall of cartilage that divides your nose into sections .


Mucous membrane
Mucous membrane

Mucus

  • Specialized form of epithelial tissue that lines the nose and respiratory system

  • Helps to moisten, warm, and filter the air that enters the nose.


Cilia
Cilia

  • The thin hairs located just inside the nostrils filters incoming air.

Olfactory Receptors

  • The receptors for the sense of smell.


Tonsils
Tonsils

  • Form a proactive circle around the entrance to the respiratory system.

  • Type of lymphatic tissue that stops invading organisms.


Sinus
Sinus

  • A air filled cavity within a bone that is lined with mucous membrane

Functions

To make the bones of the skull lighter

Help produce sound by giving resonance to the voice

To produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity


Pharynx
Pharynx

  • Commonly known as the throat.

    Three Divisions

  • Nasopharynx- posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth.

  • Oropharynx- the portion visible when looked in the mouth.

  • Larngopharynx- continues down to opening of the esophagus and trachea.


Epiglottis
Epiglottis

  • A lidlike structure located at the base of the tongue.

  • Swings down and closes off the laryngopharynx so food doesn’t enter the trachea and the lungs.


Larynx
Larynx

  • The voice box

  • A triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea.

  • Contains the vocal cords

    Thyroid cartilage

  • The largest and prominent of the nine cartilages protecting the larynx and is commonly known as the Adam’s apple.


Trachea
Trachea

  • Commonly known as the windpipe

  • Extends from the neck into the chest.

  • Directly in front of the esophagus and is held open by a series of C-shaped cartilage rings.


The bronchial tree
The Bronchial Tree

  • Divides into two branches called Bronchi

  • Within the lung the bronchi divides and subdivides into Bronchioles.

    Bronchioles

  • The smallest branches of the bronchi.


Alveoli
Alveoli

  • Also know as air sacs

  • Very small grapelike clusters found at the end of each bronchiole.

  • This is where the gas exchange occurs.


The lungs
The Lungs

  • Have divisions called lobes

  • The right lung has Three lobes: superior, middle, inferior.

  • The left has Two lobes: superior, inferior.


Mediastinum
Mediastinum

  • Also known as the interpleural space.

  • The space contains the thoracic vicera including the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, and thymus gland.


Pleura
Pleura

  • A multilayered membrane that surrounds each lung with its blood vessels and nerves.

  • Parietal pleura-the outer layer of the pleura.

  • Visceral pleura- in layer of the pleura.

  • Pleural space [or pleural cavity]- the airtight space between the folds of the pleural membranes.


Diaphragm
Diaphragm

  • The muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen.

  • Phrenic nerve- the nerve that stimulates the diaphragm and causes it to contract



External respiration
External Respiration

  • Breathing- the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs.

  • Inhalation- the act of taking air into the lungs.

  • Exhalation- the act of breathing out.


Exchange of gases
Exchange of Gases

As air is taken into the alveoli it immediately passes into the surrounding capillaries and is carried by the erythrocytes to all the body.

At the same time, the waste product carbon dioxide passes from the capillaries into the airspaces of the lungs to be exhaled.


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