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Baikal Neutrino Telescope – an underwater laboratory for astroparticle physics and environmental studies. N. Budnev, Irkutsk State University. For the Baikal Collaboration. BAIKAL - Collaboration Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, Russia. Irkutsk State University, Russia.

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Baikal Neutrino Telescope –

an underwater laboratory for

astroparticle physics and

environmental studies.

N. Budnev, Irkutsk State University.

For the Baikal Collaboration


  • BAIKAL - Collaboration

  • Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, Russia.

  • Irkutsk State University, Russia.

  • Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow, Russia.

  • DESY-Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany.

  • Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia.

  • Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Russia.

  • St.Petersburg State Marine University, Russia.

  • Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia.


W49B

g

n

SN 0540-69.3

P+Nuclears

Crab

Cas A

E0102-72.3

Messengers from the Universe

  • Photons currently provide all information on the Universe. But they are rather strongly reprocessed and absorbed in their sources and during propagation. For Eg > 500 TeV photons do not survive journey from Galactic Centre.

  • Protons+Nuclear directions scrambled by galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields as well for Epr >2021 eV they loss energy due to interaction with relict radiation (GZK-effect).

  • Neutrinos have discovery potential because they open a new window on the Universe


O(km) long muon tracks

Electromagnetic & hadronic cascades

 5-15 m

~ 5 m

CCe + Neutral Current

Charged Current (CC) 

1960 - M. Markov: High Energy neutrino detection in natural transparent media (ocean water, ice):


pp core AGN

p blazar jet

log(E2 Flux)

Top-Bottom

GZK

WIMPs

Oscillations

GRB

(W&B)

3 6 9

log(E/GeV)

TeV PeV EeV

Air showers

Underground

Radio,Acoustic

Underwater

Microquasars etc.


NT200+/Baikal-GVD

1993-1998 (~2015)

KM3NeT

(~2014)

ANTARES

A

N

N

NEMO

NESTOR

Amanda/IceCube

1996-2000 (~2011)


First underwater neutrino telescope NT200


The first underwater neutrino telescope NT200

have been operated in Lake Baikal since 1998.

Why Lake Baikal?

Length – 720 km, width – 30-50 km, depth -1300-1640 m

20% of kind fresh water


Site conditions

  • Sufficient depth (1370 m) is located at distance 3 km from the shore.

  • Absorption length typically is (20 – 25) m, scattering length typically is (50 – 70!) m.

  • No bioluminescence flashes, background, as a rule, in 10 -100 times less then in a sea water.

  • Small water currents, especially at large depths (a few millimeters per second).

  • Fresh water, cheaper materials can be used.

  • Convenient transport communication.


Ice as a natural deployment platform

  • Ice stable for 6-8 weeks/year:

    • Maintenance & upgrades

    • Test & installation of new equipment

Winches used for deployment


The Ice Camp (4km offshore)


Schematic view on the deep underwater complex NT200

10-Neutrino Telescope NT200

7-hydrophysical mooring

5-sedimentology mooring

12-geophysical mooring

13-18-acoustic transponders

1-4 cable lines

Buoy

Anchor


NANP’03

  • NT200running since 1998

  • - 8 strings with 192 optical modules,

  • 72m height,

  • R=21.5m radius,

  • 1070m depth, Vgeo=0.1Mton

  • effective area: S >2000 m2 (E>1 TeV)

  • Shower Eff Volume: ~1 Mt at 1 PeV


“Quasar” photoelectric detector

G= 20-30


The items for NT200

  • Low energy phenomena (10 GeV-100 TeV)

  • atmospheric neutrinos and muons

  • -Search for dark matter

  • neutrino signal from WIMP annihilation

  • Search for exotic particles

  • magnetic monopoles

  • High energy phenomena(100TeV- 1000PeV)

  • diffuse neutrino flux

  • neutrinos from GRB

  • HE neutrino sources

  • prompt muons and neutrinos

  • Environmental studies


“Low” energy neutrino search strategy

We look for upward going muons

p

p

Atmosphere

n

m

m

m

The neutrino

telescope

n

Earth

m

p

At the 1km depth :

m

p

m

m

- 6

10


Atmospheric muons: Calibration Beam

Ai, ti

atm. m

Time difference

(dt = t52-t53)

Amplitude (Chan 12)

Reconstructed m’s :

Cos(zenith) distribution

vs. Corsika

dt, ns

cos (  )

Photoelectrons


Sky plot for upward going neutrino

April1998 - February 2003 years, 1038 days,462 events.

Threshold – 15 GeV


 +  b + b

C +  + 

 W + + W -

Detection area of NT-200 for vertically up-going muons

detection (after all cuts)

Search for WIMP Neutrinos from the Center of the Earth

23


Limit on excess neutrino induced upwardmuon flux 90% c.l. limits from the Earth ( 1038 days NT200 livetime, E> 10 GeV )

WIMP Neutrinos from the Center of the Earth

1038 days livetime NT200 (1998 -2003)

48 evts - experiment

73.1evts- prediction without oscillations

56.6 evts - prediction with oscillations

3.6 evts - atm. Muons (backgraund)

Systematic uncertainties: 24%

Within statistical and systematic uncertainties 48 detected events are compatible with the expected background induced by atmospheric neutrinos with oscillations.


N= n2 (g/e)2 N= 8300 N

g = 137/2, n = 1.33

90% C.L. upper limit on the flux of fast monopole (1003 livedays)

Search for fast monopoles (b > 0.8)

Event selection criteria:

hit channel multiplicity - Nhi t> 35 ch,

upward-going monopole -

(zi-z)(ti-t)/(tz) > 0.45 & o

Background - atmospheric muons

Limit on a flux of relativistic monopoles:F < 4.6 10-17 cm-2 sec-1 sr-1


NT200

large effective volume

Search for High Energy neutrino (cascades)

Look for events with

large number hit

channels

and for upward moving

light fronts.

(BG)

Number of Cherenkov photons

Nph = 200 (E / 2 MeV) for

E=10 Pev Nph = 1012!!!

27


Diffuse flux ofne, nt, n: cascades

The 90% C.L. Limits Obtained With

NT-200 (1038 days)

DIFFUSE NEUTRINO FLUX

(Ф~ E-2, 10 TeV < E < 104 TeV)

ne n nt= 1  2  0 (AGN)

ne  n nt= 1  1  1 (Earth)

NT-200

AMANDA II

BaikalE2 Фn< 8.1 ·10-7GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

AMANDA E2 Фn< 8.6 ·10-7GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

W-RESONANCE

( E = 6.3 PeV, s = 5.3 ·10-31 cm2 )

BaikalФne < 3.3 · 10-20 (cm2 · s · sr ·GeV )-1

AMANDAФne < 5.0 · 10-20 (cm2 · s · sr ·GeV )-1

Vg(NT200)


Flux ofne, nt, n: cascades

Experimentalimits and theoretical predictions

Astropart. Phys. 25 (2006) 140


Toward Gigaton Water Detector(KM3 detector on lake Baikal)


2005 year. Upgrade to NT200+ finished

Laser intensity - cascade energy:

(1012 – 5 1013 ) g/puls- (10 – 500) PeV


Ice – A perfect natural deployment platform

Foto from Mar, 2005, 4km off-shore:

NT200+ deployment from 1m thick ice.

100 m

New ShoreCable

ExtString 1

ExtString 3

ExtString 2

NT200

Central+Outer Str.


110100 1000PeV

41523 40Mton

2005: NT200+ - intermediate stage to Gigaton Volume Detector (km3 scale)iscommissioned in Lake Baikal

Main physics goal:

Energy spectrum of all flavor

extraterrestrial HE-neutrinos

(E > 100 TeV)

  • Total number of OMs – 228 / 11 strings

  • Instrumented volume – 5 Mt

  • (AMANDA II, ANTARES – 10 Mt)

  • Detection volume >10 Mt for En>10Pev

  • high resolution of cascade vertex and

  • energy neutrino energy


Sparse instrumentation:

91 – 100 strings with 12 – 16 OMs

(1300 – 1700 OMs)

 effective volume for

>100 TeV cascades ~ 0.5 -1.0 km³

dlg(E)~ 0.1, dqmed< 4o

 detects muons with

energy > 10 - 30TeV

Ultimate goal of Baikal Neutrino Project: Gigaton (km3) Volume Detector in Lake Baikal

208m

624m

70m

70m

120m

280m


A Gigaton (km3) Detector in Lake Baikal - Status -

  • - Basic detector element is NT200+. Under “Real Physics Test“ since 4/2005.

  • Dedicated R&D for Baikal/km3 – technology starts in 2006.

  • Redesign of some key elements is under consideration.

  • Issues:

    • Optical Module: Quasar vs other? Grouping 2 vs 3? FADC readout? ...

    • Time synchronization: electrical vs. optical, ....

    • System architecture: subarray trigger, string controller, data transfer, ...

    • Auxiliary systems: acoustic positioning, bright laser sources, …

    • MC design optimization

    • ...

  • Interaction Baikal/km3  KM3NeT :

  • Common activities for a few selected technical issues - could this be useful ?

  • e.g. OMs (design/in-situ [email protected]+); MC (design; verification); TimeSync.; Auxil.Dev.; …,...


PM selection for the km3 prototype string

Basic criteria of PM selection is its effective sensitivity to Cherenkov light which depends on

Photocathode area Quantum efficiency  Collection efficiency

Quasar-370

D  14.6”

Quantum efficiency 0.15

Hamamatsu R8055

D  13”

Quantum efficiency 0.20

Photonis XP1807

D  12”

Quantum efficiency 0.24

?

?


Laser

PM selection: Underwater tests (2007)

4 PM R8055 (Hamamatsu) и 2 XP1807 (Photonis)

were installed to NT200+ detector (April 2007).

4 PM: central telescope

NT 200;

2 PM R8055: outer string, FADC prototype.

Quasar-370

Quasar-370

R8055

XP1807

160…180 m

Quasar-370

Quasar-370


Relative effective sensitivities of large area PMs

(preliminary results)

Smaller size (R8055, XP1807) tends to be compensated by higher photocathode sensitivities.

Relative effective sensitivities of large area PMs R8055/13” , XP1807/12” and Quasar-370/14.6”. Laboratory measurements (squares), in-situ tests (dots).


Design of Prototype string

FADC unit is operating now

in Tunka EAS 1 km2detector

(astro-ph/0511229)

  • Basic features

  • String lengths ~300 m

  • String contains 12…16 OM

  • Optical modules contains only PM and control electronics

  • 12 bit 200 MHz FADC readout is designed as multi channel separate unit.

  • Half-string FADC controllers with ethernet-interface connected to string PC unit

  • String PC connected by string DSL-modem to central PC unit

300 m

PMT pulses

& Power 12 V

Control line

Data (Ethernet),

Trigger


Baikal – GVD Schedule Milestones

  • 06-07 R&D, Testing NT200+

  • 08 Technical Design

  • 08-14 Fabrication (OMs, cables,

    connectors, electronics)

  • 10-12 Deployment (0.1 – 0.3) km3

  • 13-14 Deployment (0.3 – 0.6) km3

  • 15-16 Deployment (0.6 – 0.9) km3


Acoustic detection of high energy neutrino


Acoustic Detection of High Energy Neutrino


Absorption of sound in water


Acoustic noise within 22-44 kHz

frequency band at different depths

Example of bipolar pulse

10mPa

1mPa


Listening from top to down


Angular distribution of detected bipolar events

Energy dependence of expected acoustic

signal amplitudes from cascades

Absorption length of acoustic signal in water


1. Underwater and underice Cherenkov neutrino detectors is real way to open new window in Universe.

2. In addition to existing intermediate scale underwater/underice neutrino detectors in near future should be constructed a few KM3 Cherenkov arrays.

3. Baikal is complementary to Amanda/IcaCube: location, water (low scattering), reconstruction

4. The Baikal Telescope NT200 is in operation since 1998 and Lake Baikal is one of the most suitable place in the world for deployment of huge KM3 neutrino telescope

5. R&D on Gigaton Volume Detector (km3-size array on Lake Baikal) on the base of experience of NT200+ operation is in progress.

6. New participants and collaborators are highly appreciated, welcome!!!!!!

Summary

54

I.Belolaptikov


The interdisciplinary environmental studies


Why water

is so kind?

Why conditions for

life are so good?

Length – 720 km,

width –

30-50 km,

depth –

1.3-1.64km

20% of fresh water

The water body

of the lake is

fully oxygenated

Several hundred endemic species

Inhabit all depths of the lake

These is only

thanks to

the high rate

of deep-water

renewal !!!!!

B.Koty


Temperature depth dependence in Lake Baikal

Summer profile

Winter profile

Homothermy

Depth dependence

of temperature of

maximum density

Epilimnion (0-40 m)

Thermocline (2-150 m)

Hypolimnion (30m –

bottom)

Meter

TMD = 3.9839 - 1.9911∙10-2 ∙ P - 5.822 ∙ 10-6 ∙ P2 - (0.2219 + 1.106 ∙ 10-4 ∙ P) ∙S


Instrumental moorings


The temperature at the near-surface zone

Much

January

July

September

November

May


Cold intrusion

Temperature

decreased

on 0.1 degree

June

November


The interdisciplinary environmental studies

  • Water dynamic (vertical and horizontal water exchange)

  • Biological productivity

  • Global climate changes

  • Geophysical phenomena


The instruments and methods

  • Long-term optical monitoring

  • 3 - dimensional monitoring of the water luminescence

  • 3 - dimensional temperature monitoring

  • long-term monitoring of geoelectric field

  • Acoustic tomography

  • Sedimentology study(in co-operation with EAWAG, Switzerland)


The ASP-15 instrument.

  • а – absorption coefficient,

  • b–scattering coefficient,

  • Е– photons flux


Baikal

Baikal

Optical Properties

La –absorption length

Ls-scattering length

Far away from a point like light source

E(r) ~ exp(-r/Las)/r


The luminescence as the instrument to study the dynamic phenomena in Baikal water

  • The luminescence which appearas a result of oxidization of organic material in Baikal water was discovered in 1982 year.

  • The luminescence matter is produced by biology at shallow depth and then transported to deep layers by water currents, turbulence and due to sedimentation, at the same time matter loss its ability to luminescence .

  • The luminescence is a natural tracer for the development of hydrophysical phenomena and an indicator of hydrobiological activity in the Lake Baikal.


Counting rate of FEU-130 versus depth at Neutrino Telescope site in ice cover period.

The photon flux density I(photon cm-2 s-1) = (3.5+/- 1) N

N


Counting rate of an optical module of NT-200 at 1993 -1994 years.

The luminescence is a natural indicator of development of

hydrobiological and hydrophysical phenomena in the Lake Baikal.


Counting rate of the 19 optical modules of NT-200 in September1993 year.


Vertical water motion.

7.5 m

  • Counting rate of the 3 optical modules of NT-200 situated

  • on the same vertical string

  • V vert= 2 cm/s !!!!!!!!!

    Counting rate of the 3 optical modules of NT-200 situated

  • on the same depth on the different strings


Geophysical Mooring

Buoy

Buoy

Electronic box

Synthetic rope

Electrode 1

Twisted cable

Cable

1000 m

Twisted cable

Synthetic rope

Electrode 2

Anchor


Vertical component of electric field

days


High frequency Ez variations.

Inertial waves

15 hours


Low frequency Ez variations.

27 days


Мелозира байкальская - Aulacoseira baicalensis


Solar activity

Productivity of

Aulacoseira

baicalensis

y = cos(23t/11)


Thank you!

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