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BRAZIL. The Struggle for Unity, Economic Modernization and Upward International Mobility: 1823 - 1964. Regions of Brazil. REGIONS I. The heartland (Southeast - 42% population, 60%GDP, 11% area) The south (15% population, 17% GDP, 7% area)

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brazil

BRAZIL

The Struggle for Unity, Economic Modernization and Upward International Mobility: 1823 - 1964

regions i
REGIONS I
  • The heartland

(Southeast - 42% population, 60%GDP, 11% area)

  • The south (15% population, 17% GDP, 7% area)
  • The center-west ( 8% population, 6% GDP, 25% area)
regions ii
REGIONS II
  • the north (6% population, 3% GDP, 40% area)
  • the northeast (29% population, 13%

GDP 18% area)

people
PEOPLE
  • Amerindians
  • Portuguese
  • African-Brazilians
  • Japanese
  • Other Europeans
    • Spanish
    • Germans
    • Italians
road to independence 1808 1824
Road to INDEPENDENCE (1808 – 1824)
  • Portuguese Court taken by British fleet to Rio de Janeiro
  • Centralization under Joao VI
  • End of the Napoleonic Wars
  • British aid Brazilian Independence
empire 1824 1889
Empire (1824-1889)
  • Primacy of British Economic Influence
  • Plantation Economy
    • Coffee
    • Cacao
    • Sugar
  • Issue of Slavery
  • French Orientation of Royal Court
  • Conspiracy of the Fazenderos
first republic 1889 1930
FirstRepublic 1889-1930
  • Much of imperial court transfers loyalties and remains in the national elite
  • Decentralization
  • The Coffee Economy
    • Shift to São Paulo
    • Reinvestment of profits from coffee
  • Dominant States
    • São Paulo
    • Minas Gerias
    • Rio Grande do Sul

Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, 1st President of Brazil (1889-91)

rise of get lio vargas
Rise of Getúlio Vargas
  • The revolution of 1930
  • São Paulo revolt (1932-37)
  • O Estado Novo (1937-45)
    • Populist
    • Military support at the beginning
brazilian participation in world war ii leads to downfall of vargas
Brazilian Participation in World War II leads to downfall of Vargas
  • Brazilian army fights in the Italian Theatre
  • Initial performance discredits Vargas with the armed forces s
  • Returning military overthrows Vargas
  • Beginning of alienation between United States and the Brazilian left
second republic democracy frustrated 1946 1964
Second Republic: Democracy Frustrated (1946-1964)
  • Constitution of 1946
    • Modeled on U.S. constitution
    • Structure so as not to threaten the large land owners of the Northeast
  • Political Parties
    • UND
    • PSD
    • PTB
    • Regional - local parties
second republic vargas returns 1951 1954
Second Republic: Vargas Returns (1951-1954)
  • Vargas: “The Last Hurrah”
  • Vargas wins as candidate of PTB
    • Military officer corps remains suspicious
    • Efforts to advance social revolution frightens the middle class
    • Military exercises its “Mediating power”
janio quadros president 31 january 1961 25 august 1961
Janio QuadrosPresident: 31 January 1961 - 25 August 1961
  • Reform governor of São Paulo
  • First “UDN candidate” to be elected president
  • Resignation after less than one year i office
    • Surprises the military
    • Frustrates UDN
    • Weakens the democratic regime
jo o goulart in power 1961 64
João Goulart in power 1961-64)
  • Temporary switch to parliamentary system
  • Goulart assumes full power (1962)
  • Efforts to create a pro-Vargas majority
    • Courting peasants in the Northeast
    • Strengthing labor-based infrastructure of the PTB
    • Courting the urban poor
    • Anti-American nationalism
end of the second republic
End of the Second Republic
  • Pressures for Military Intervention
    • Conflictual social polarization
    • Middle class fears of workers
    • Attempt to divide the military along officer – enlisted lines
    • Role of the United States government
coup of april 1 1964
Coup of April 1, 1964
  • HumbertoCasteloBranco assumes power
  • Military demobilizes potential opponents
    • President Goulart flees to Uruguay
    • Key elected officials of PTB removed from office
  • Demobilization portrayed as temporary
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