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BRAZIL. The Struggle for Unity, Economic Modernization and Upward International Mobility: 1823 - 1964. Regions of Brazil. REGIONS I. The heartland (Southeast - 42% population, 60%GDP, 11% area) The south (15% population, 17% GDP, 7% area)

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Brazil

BRAZIL

The Struggle for Unity, Economic Modernization and Upward International Mobility: 1823 - 1964



Regions i
REGIONS I

  • The heartland

    (Southeast - 42% population, 60%GDP, 11% area)

  • The south (15% population, 17% GDP, 7% area)

  • The center-west ( 8% population, 6% GDP, 25% area)



Regions ii
REGIONS II

  • the north (6% population, 3% GDP, 40% area)

  • the northeast (29% population, 13%

    GDP 18% area)


People
PEOPLE

  • Amerindians

  • Portuguese

  • African-Brazilians

  • Japanese

  • Other Europeans

    • Spanish

    • Germans

    • Italians


Road to independence 1808 1824
Road to INDEPENDENCE (1808 – 1824)

  • Portuguese Court taken by British fleet to Rio de Janeiro

  • Centralization under Joao VI

  • End of the Napoleonic Wars

  • British aid Brazilian Independence


Empire 1824 1889
Empire (1824-1889)

  • Primacy of British Economic Influence

  • Plantation Economy

    • Coffee

    • Cacao

    • Sugar

  • Issue of Slavery

  • French Orientation of Royal Court

  • Conspiracy of the Fazenderos


First republic 1889 1930
FirstRepublic 1889-1930

  • Much of imperial court transfers loyalties and remains in the national elite

  • Decentralization

  • The Coffee Economy

    • Shift to São Paulo

    • Reinvestment of profits from coffee

  • Dominant States

    • São Paulo

    • Minas Gerias

    • Rio Grande do Sul

Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, 1st President of Brazil (1889-91)


Rise of get lio vargas
Rise of Getúlio Vargas

  • The revolution of 1930

  • São Paulo revolt (1932-37)

  • O Estado Novo (1937-45)

    • Populist

    • Military support at the beginning


Brazilian participation in world war ii leads to downfall of vargas
Brazilian Participation in World War II leads to downfall of Vargas

  • Brazilian army fights in the Italian Theatre

  • Initial performance discredits Vargas with the armed forces s

  • Returning military overthrows Vargas

  • Beginning of alienation between United States and the Brazilian left


Second republic democracy frustrated 1946 1964
Second Republic: Democracy Frustrated (1946-1964) Vargas

  • Constitution of 1946

    • Modeled on U.S. constitution

    • Structure so as not to threaten the large land owners of the Northeast

  • Political Parties

    • UND

    • PSD

    • PTB

    • Regional - local parties


Second republic vargas returns 1951 1954
Second Republic: Vargas Returns (1951-1954) Vargas

  • Vargas: “The Last Hurrah”

  • Vargas wins as candidate of PTB

    • Military officer corps remains suspicious

    • Efforts to advance social revolution frightens the middle class

    • Military exercises its “Mediating power”


Juscelino kubitscheck builds brasilia 800 miles from the coast
Juscelino VargasKubitscheck Builds Brasilia – 800 miles from the coast



Janio quadros president 31 january 1961 25 august 1961
Janio Quadros VargasPresident: 31 January 1961 - 25 August 1961

  • Reform governor of São Paulo

  • First “UDN candidate” to be elected president

  • Resignation after less than one year i office

    • Surprises the military

    • Frustrates UDN

    • Weakens the democratic regime


Jo o goulart in power 1961 64
João Goulart in power 1961-64) Vargas

  • Temporary switch to parliamentary system

  • Goulart assumes full power (1962)

  • Efforts to create a pro-Vargas majority

    • Courting peasants in the Northeast

    • Strengthing labor-based infrastructure of the PTB

    • Courting the urban poor

    • Anti-American nationalism


End of the second republic
End of the Second Republic Vargas

  • Pressures for Military Intervention

    • Conflictual social polarization

    • Middle class fears of workers

    • Attempt to divide the military along officer – enlisted lines

    • Role of the United States government


Coup of april 1 1964
Coup of April 1, 1964 Vargas

  • HumbertoCasteloBranco assumes power

  • Military demobilizes potential opponents

    • President Goulart flees to Uruguay

    • Key elected officials of PTB removed from office

  • Demobilization portrayed as temporary


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