TEC-NH  Summer Survival Workshop

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TEC-NH Summer Survival Workshop

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1. TEC-NH Summer Survival Workshop Presenters: Dr. Jane Legacy Michelle McKeogh

2. Learning Styles You have probably noticed that when you try to learn something new that you prefer to learn by listening to someone talk to you about the information. Some people prefer to read about a concept to learn it; others need to see a demonstration of the concept. Learning Style Theory proposes that different people learn in different ways and that it is good to know what your own preferred learning style is http://www.d.umn.edu/student/loon/acad/strat/lrnsty.html Your learning style is the way you prefer to learn. It doesn't have anything to do with how intelligent you are or what skills you have learned. It has to do with how your brain works most efficiently to learn new information. Your learning style has been with you since you were born. There's no such thing as a "good" learning style or a "bad" learning style. Success comes with many different learning styles. There is no "right" approach to learning. We all have our own particular way of learning new information. The important thing is to be aware of the nature of your learning style. If you are aware of how your brain best learns, you have a better chance of studying in a way that will pay off when it's time to take that dreaded exam. http://www.metamath.com/lsweb/dvclearn.htm You have probably noticed that when you try to learn something new that you prefer to learn by listening to someone talk to you about the information. Some people prefer to read about a concept to learn it; others need to see a demonstration of the concept. Learning Style Theory proposes that different people learn in different ways and that it is good to know what your own preferred learning style is http://www.d.umn.edu/student/loon/acad/strat/lrnsty.html Your learning style is the way you prefer to learn. It doesn't have anything to do with how intelligent you are or what skills you have learned. It has to do with how your brain works most efficiently to learn new information. Your learning style has been with you since you were born. There's no such thing as a "good" learning style or a "bad" learning style. Success comes with many different learning styles. There is no "right" approach to learning. We all have our own particular way of learning new information. The important thing is to be aware of the nature of your learning style. If you are aware of how your brain best learns, you have a better chance of studying in a way that will pay off when it's time to take that dreaded exam. http://www.metamath.com/lsweb/dvclearn.htm

3. VARK Learning Styles V A R K Visual Aural Read/Write Kinesthetic Your VARK preferences can be used to help you develop additional, effective strategies for learningYour VARK preferences can be used to help you develop additional, effective strategies for learning

4. Study Practices Select your particular preference(s) to see how you should: Take in information Study information for effective learning Study for performing well on an examination

5. Visual Study Strategies Use all these techniques Reconstruct images in different images in different ways Try different spatial arrangements Numbers replace words with symbols and initials Look at your pages format etc what it looks like so you can remember later Use all these techniques Reconstruct images in different images in different ways Try different spatial arrangements Numbers replace words with symbols and initials Look at your pages format etc what it looks like so you can remember later

6. Visual (Continued) You want the whole picture so you are probably holistic rather than reductionist in your approach.. You are often swayed by the look of an object. You are interested in color and layout and design and you know where you are in your environment.  You are probably going to draw something. You want the whole picture so you are probably holistic rather than reductionist in your approach.. You are often swayed by the look of an object. You are interested in color and layout and design and you know where you are in your environment.  You are probably going to draw something.

7. Aural Study Practices INTAKE discuss topics with others discuss topics with your teachers explain new ideas to other people use a tape recorder remember the interesting examples, stories, jokes... describe the overheads, pictures and other visuals to somebody who was not there leave spaces in your notes for later recall and 'filling' Your notes may be poor because you prefer to listen. You will need to expand your notes by talking with others and collecting notes from the textbook. Put your summarised notes onto tapes and listen to them. Ask others to 'hear' your understanding of a topic. Read your summarised notes aloud. Explain your notes to another 'aural' person remember the interesting examples, stories, jokes... describe the overheads, pictures and other visuals to somebody who was not there leave spaces in your notes for later recall and 'filling' Your notes may be poor because you prefer to listen. You will need to expand your notes by talking with others and collecting notes from the textbook. Put your summarised notes onto tapes and listen to them. Ask others to 'hear' your understanding of a topic. Read your summarised notes aloud. Explain your notes to another 'aural' person

8. Aural (Continued) Imagine talking with the examiner Spend time in quiet places recalling the ideas. Practice writing answers to old exam questions. Speak your answers aloud or inside your head. To perform well in any test, assignment or examination You prefer to have all of this page explained to you. The written words are not as valuable as those you hear. You will probably go and tell somebody about this. To perform well in any test, assignment or examination You prefer to have all of this page explained to you.The written words are not as valuable as those you hear.You will probably go and tell somebody about this.

9. Read/Write Study Strategies Intake lists headings definitions handouts textbooks If you have a strong preference for learning by Reading and Writing (R & W) learning you should use some or all of the following http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=readwrite Write out the words again and again. Read your notes (silently) again and again. Rewrite the ideas and principles into other words. Organize any diagrams, graphs ... into statements, e.g. "The trend is..." Turn reactions, actions, diagrams, charts and flows into words. Imagine your lists arranged in multiplechoice questions and distinguish each from each. If you have a strong preference for learning by Reading and Writing (R & W) learning you should use some or all of the following http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=readwrite Write out the words again and again. Read your notes (silently) again and again. Rewrite the ideas and principles into other words. Organize any diagrams, graphs ... into statements, e.g. "The trend is..." Turn reactions, actions, diagrams, charts and flows into words. Imagine your lists arranged in multiplechoice questions and distinguish each from each.

10. Read/Write (Continued) Output Write exam answers. Practice with multiple choice questions. Write paragraphs, beginnings and endings. To perform well in any assignment, test, or examination You like this page because the emphasis is on words and lists. You believe the meanings are within the words, so any talk is OK but this handout is better. You are heading for the library. To perform well in any assignment, test, or examination You like this page because the emphasis is on words and lists.You believe the meanings are within the words, so any talk is OK but this handout is better.You are heading for the library.

11. Kinesthetic Study Strategies Intake all your senses - sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing field trips lecturers who give real-life examples hands-on approaches (computing) trial and error Your lecture notes may be poor because the topics were not 'concrete' or 'relevant'. You will remember the "real" things that happened. Put plenty of examples into your summary. Use case studies and applications to help with principles and abstract concepts. Talk about your notes with another "K" person. Use pictures and photographs that illustrate an idea. Go back to the laboratory or your lab manual. Recall the experiments, field trip... Your lecture notes may be poor because the topics were not 'concrete' or 'relevant'. You will remember the "real" things that happened. Put plenty of examples into your summary. Use case studies and applications to help with principles and abstract concepts. Talk about your notes with another "K" person. Use pictures and photographs that illustrate an idea. Go back to the laboratory or your lab manual. Recall the experiments, field trip...

12. Kinesthetic (Continued) Output To perform well in an examination Write practice answers, paragraphs... Role play the exam situation in your own room You want to experience the exam so that you can understand it. The ideas on this page are only valuable if they sound practical, real, and relevant to you. You need to do things to understand You want to experience the exam so that you can understand it.The ideas on this page are only valuable if they sound practical, real, and relevant to you.You need to do things to understand

13. Multimodal Preferences You have multiple preferences 50% - 75% of the population fits in this group Some people have equal preferences for all 4 modes due to adapting to the mode being used or requested So multiple preferences give you choices of two or three or four modes to use for your interaction with others. One interesting piece of information that people with multimodal preferences have told us is that it is necessary for them to use more than one strategy for learning and communicating. They feel insecure with only one. Alternatively those with a single preference often "get it" by using the set of strategies that align with their single preference.So multiple preferences give you choices of two or three or four modes to use for your interaction with others. One interesting piece of information that people with multimodal preferences have told us is that it is necessary for them to use more than one strategy for learning and communicating. They feel insecure with only one. Alternatively those with a single preference often "get it" by using the set of strategies that align with their single preference.

14. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

15. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Dimensions Extroversion vs. Introversion Sensing vs. Intuition Thinking vs. Feeling Judging vs. Perceptive our personality does play an important part in determining our learning style. our personality does play an important part in determining our learning style.

16. Introversion vs. Extroversion Find energy in the inner world of ideas, concepts, and abstractions Think more than talk Want to develop frameworks that integrate or connect the info that they learn Prefer interaction with others, action-oriented Talk more than listen Learn by teaching others This indicates whether a learner prefers to direct attention towards the external world of people and things or toward the internal world of concepts and ideas. This preference tells us from where people get their energy.  Introverts They can be sociable but need tranquility to regain their energy. They want to understand the world; they concentrate and the tend to be reflective thinkers. Extroverts. They also tend to think on their feet. They talk more than listen. Extroverted learners learn by teaching others. They do not normally understand the subject until they try to explain it to themselves or others (working in groups). Problem Based Learning and Collaborative Learning are good teaching techniques for this group. This indicates whether a learner prefers to direct attention towards the external world of people and things or toward the internal world of concepts and ideas. This preference tells us from where people get their energy.  Introverts They can be sociable but need tranquility to regain their energy. They want to understand the world; they concentrate and the tend to be reflective thinkers.

17. Sensing vs. Intuition Rely on their 5 senses Detail-oriented, want facts Learners prefer organized, linear, and structured lectures Systematic instruction or step-by-step learning Seek out patterns and relationships among facts Trust hunches and look for “big picture” Learners prefer concept maps and compare and contrast tables This indicates whether a learner prefers to perceive the world by directly observing the surrounding reality or through impressions and imagining possibilities. Intuitive. ("sixth" sense) They also value imagination and innovation. Intuitive learners prefer various forms of discovery learning and must have the big picture (metaphors and analogies), or an integrating framework in order to understand a subject. This indicates whether a learner prefers to perceive the world by directly observing the surrounding reality or through impressions and imagining possibilities. Intuitive. ("sixth" sense) They also value imagination and innovation. Intuitive learners prefer various forms of discovery learning and must have the big picture (metaphors and analogies), or an integrating framework in order to understand a subject.

18. Thinking vs. Feeling Value fairness Focus on situation’s logic and tend to be critical Prefer clear goal and objectives Want to know what they have to do to learn the material Value harmony by focusing on human values to make decisions or judgments Good at persuasion and facilitating differences among group members Enjoy small group exercises This indicates how the learner makes decisions, either through logic or by using fairness and human values. Thinkers decide things impersonally based on analysis, logic, and principle.. They want to see precise, action-oriented cognitive, affective and psychomotor objective. This indicates how the learner makes decisions, either through logic or by using fairness and human values. Thinkers decide things impersonally based on analysis, logic, and principle.. They want to see precise, action-oriented cognitive, affective and psychomotor objective.

19. Judging vs. Perceptive Decisive, self-starters Focus on completing the task Want guides that give quick tips Can be encouraged by offering self-improvement Curious, adaptable, and spontaneous Postpone doing assignments Breaking down complex projects will help keep them on target Process oriented This indicates how the learner views the world, either as a structured and planned environment or as a spontaneous environment. Judging self-regimented. They also focus on completing the task, knowing the essentials, and they take action quickly. They plan their work and work their plan. Deadlines are sacred as they see time as a finite resource. Judging learners need tools that help them to plan their work and work their plan. Perceptive. They start many tasks, want to know everything about each task, and often find it difficult to complete a task. Deadlines are meant to be stretched while more information is gathered as they see time as a renewable resource. They like to leave their options open. They are not lazy, they are merely seeking information up to the very last minute.. This indicates how the learner views the world, either as a structured and planned environment or as a spontaneous environment. Judging self-regimented. They also focus on completing the task, knowing the essentials, and they take action quickly. They plan their work and work their plan. Deadlines are sacred as they see time as a finite resource. Judging learners need tools that help them to plan their work and work their plan. Perceptive. They start many tasks, want to know everything about each task, and often find it difficult to complete a task. Deadlines are meant to be stretched while more information is gathered as they see time as a renewable resource. They like to leave their options open. They are not lazy, they are merely seeking information up to the very last minute..

20. Tapping Into Multiple Intelligences Based on Howard Gardner’s Theory

21. What Is Intelligence? The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture; A set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life; The potential for finding or creating solutions for problems, which involves gathering new knowledge. Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. According to a traditional definition, intelligence is a uniform cognitive capacity people are born with. He believes each individual has nine intelligences: Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. According to a traditional definition, intelligence is a uniform cognitive capacity people are born with. He believes each individual has nine intelligences:

22. The 9 Intelligences: Verbal-Linguistic Mathematical-Logical Musical Visual-Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Existential 1 Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words 2 Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully 6 Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature 9 Existential Intelligence -- sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here. Based on his study of many people from many different walks of life in everyday circumstances and professions, Gardner developed the theory of multiple intelligences. He performed interviews with and brain research on hundreds of people, including stroke victims, prodigies, autistic individuals, and so-called "idiot savants." According to Gardner, All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. These intelligences may define the human species. 1 Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words 2 Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully 6 Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature 9 Existential Intelligence -- sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here. Based on his study of many people from many different walks of life in everyday circumstances and professions, Gardner developed the theory of multiple intelligences. He performed interviews with and brain research on hundreds of people, including stroke victims, prodigies, autistic individuals, and so-called "idiot savants." According to Gardner, All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. These intelligences may define the human species.

24. Theory Concepts: All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students.We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students.

25. Theory Concepts (Cont.) These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. These intelligences may define the human species.

26. How can applying M.I. theory help students learn better? Students begin to understand how they are intelligent. Learning is both a social and psychological process.

27. Understanding the Balance When students understand the balance of their own multiple intelligences they begin: To manage their own learning To value their individual strengths Teachers understand how students are intelligent as well as how intelligent they are. Knowing which students have the potential for strong interpersonal intelligence, for example, will help you create opportunities where the strength can be fostered in others. Students become balanced individuals who can function as members of their culture. Classroom activities that teach to the intelligences foster deep understanding Teachers understand how students are intelligent as well as how intelligent they are. Knowing which students have the potential for strong interpersonal intelligence, for example, will help you create opportunities where the strength can be fostered in others. Students become balanced individuals who can function as members of their culture. Classroom activities that teach to the intelligences foster deep understanding

28. To Help Understand How Students Learn Best Take a Multiple Intelligences Self-Inventory. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index.html

29. Applying MI in the Classroom At all levels of education, teachers are transforming subject-specific lessons and curriculum units into meaningful M.I. experiences. As educators explore more effective methods of assessment, they frequently encourage their students to demonstrate understanding through M.I. activities. There are many different ways to apply multiple intelligences theory in the classroom. You probably employ a variety of intelligences already. At all levels of education, teachers are transforming subject-specific lessons and curriculum units into meaningful M.I. experiences. History courses study period music and art. Science units incorporate visual, musical and kinesthetic experiences. Language arts classes reading Civil War literature visit re-enactments and build a topographical map. As educators explore more effective methods of assessment, they frequently encourage their students to demonstrate understanding through M.I. activities. Elementary school students compose and perform songs about math concepts which satisfy the rubrics they and their teachers have developed. Middle school students create multimedia presentations combining animations, MIDI compositions, and writing to satisfy interdisciplinary unit requirements. High school students demonstrate mastery of self-formulated research questions through art, writing portfolios, and giving speeches before panels of local citizens. There are many different ways to apply multiple intelligences theory in the classroom. You probably employ a variety of intelligences already. At all levels of education, teachers are transforming subject-specific lessons and curriculum units into meaningful M.I. experiences. History courses study period music and art. Science units incorporate visual, musical and kinesthetic experiences. Language arts classes reading Civil War literature visit re-enactments and build a topographical map. As educators explore more effective methods of assessment, they frequently encourage their students to demonstrate understanding through M.I. activities. Elementary school students compose and perform songs about math concepts which satisfy the rubrics they and their teachers have developed. Middle school students create multimedia presentations combining animations, MIDI compositions, and writing to satisfy interdisciplinary unit requirements. High school students demonstrate mastery of self-formulated research questions through art, writing portfolios, and giving speeches before panels of local citizens.

30. Classroom Activities Group discussion Verbal-Linguistic; Interpersonal Journal writing Intrapersonal; Verbal/Linguistic Constructing timelines - Logical-Mathematical; Visual-Spatial Making a video Logical-Mathematical, Musical-Rhythmic; Verbal/Linguistic; Interpersonal; Visual-Spatial

31. Classroom Activities (Cont.) Writing a report or essay Verbal-Linguistic Making graphs Logical-Mathematical; Visual-Spatial Designing posters Verbal-Linguistic, Visual-Spatial Communicating with experts online Verbal-Linguistic; Interpersonal

32. Classroom Activities Hands-on experimentation Kinesthetic; Logical/Mathematical Composing a song Musical/Rhythmic; Verbal-Linguistic Building a model or 3-D displays Kinesthetic; Logical-Mathematical

33. Does MI Curriculum Measure Up to State and National Standards? The application of multiple intelligence theory both enhances current curriculum and is congruent with major initiatives in the area of standards. M.I. theory builds good teaching and learning into an existing curriculum. It expands the number of ways that students can represent their understanding and knowledge of the topic being studied. The effect of activating M.I. is to improve the understanding and self-esteem of more and more students. Engaging students through musical experiences in writing assignments should make more students successful in writing. Exploring how a painter expressed a feeling similar to that in the music and writing assignment, should draw still more students into the circle of success. Students who experience a multiple intelligence oriented education will not struggle on standardized intelligence tests or norm-referenced state mastery tests. They will likely do better. M.I. theory builds good teaching and learning into an existing curriculum. It expands the number of ways that students can represent their understanding and knowledge of the topic being studied. The effect of activating M.I. is to improve the understanding and self-esteem of more and more students. Engaging students through musical experiences in writing assignments should make more students successful in writing. Exploring how a painter expressed a feeling similar to that in the music and writing assignment, should draw still more students into the circle of success. Students who experience a multiple intelligence oriented education will not struggle on standardized intelligence tests or norm-referenced state mastery tests. They will likely do better.

34. Keys to Curriculum Structure and Lesson Planning It is important to teach subject matter through a variety of activities and projects. Assessments should be integrated into learning. It is counterproductive to label students with a particular intelligence. It is important to teach subject matter through a variety of activities and projects. To this end, fill the classroom with rich and engaging activities that evoke a range of intelligences. Also, encourage students to work collaboratively as well as individually to support both their "interpersonal" and "intrapersonal" intelligences. Assessments should be integrated into learning. And students need to play an active role in their assessment. When a student helps determine and clarify the goals of classroom activities, his or her academic success and confidence increases. Offer students a number of choices for "showing what they know" about a topic. In addition to traditional paper tests, students need opportunities to create meaningful projects and authentic presentations. 3 It is counterproductive to label students with a particular intelligence. While an artistic genius may begin to reveal herself in grade 2, it limits her potential for understanding to fail to expose her to opportunities to access her other intelligences. All students have all intelligences. By nurturing the whole spectrum, teachers motivate students, foster their learning, and strengthen their intelligences. It is important to teach subject matter through a variety of activities and projects. To this end, fill the classroom with rich and engaging activities that evoke a range of intelligences. Also, encourage students to work collaboratively as well as individually to support both their "interpersonal" and "intrapersonal" intelligences. Assessments should be integrated into learning. And students need to play an active role in their assessment. When a student helps determine and clarify the goals of classroom activities, his or her academic success and confidence increases.

35. Implementation Exercises Learning Centers Simulations Presentations Learning Centers offer the teacher and student a variety pack of projects and ideas. Simulations are powerful models of teaching because they teach students how to master concepts and learn to be effective in pursuing goals. With presentations, the student must not only understand what is being presented, but to whom it's being presented, and apply different presentation strategies. Learning Centers offer the teacher and student a variety pack of projects and ideas. Simulations are powerful models of teaching because they teach students how to master concepts and learn to be effective in pursuing goals. With presentations, the student must not only understand what is being presented, but to whom it's being presented, and apply different presentation strategies.

36. Learning Centers Reading/Writing Center (Verbal/Linguistic; Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences) Illustration/Visual Expression Center (Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal Intelligences) Science/Experiment Center (Logical/Mathematical, Naturalist, Visual/Spatial Intelligences) Learning Centers, also called "Learning Stations", are situations around the classroom that a teacher sets up for students to work in either small group or individual activities. Each of these centers has supplies and materials that work well together and give students the tools to complete activities and mini-projects -- either in groups of two to three students or individually. READING/WRITING CENTER (for encouraging students' Verbal/Linguistic; Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences) Fiction and non-fiction books on a variety of topics, in many genres Illustrated books Books on tape with related book in hard copy Books, articles, and papers written by students Cushions for quiet reading or for group discussion Word games (Boggle, Wheel of Fortune, Scrabble, Password) Creative writing tools (variety of pens, paper, etc.); tape recorder; magazines that can be cut up for images; story starter books and cards Yellow pages; other address resource books List of addresses and phone numbers of relevant organizations Computer with color printer: concept mapping software, word processor, e-mail and Internet connection Multimedia presentation tools (e.g. HyperStudio, PowerPoint etc.) ILLUSTRATION/VISUAL EXPRESSION CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal Intelligences) Canvas or dropcloth Painting (acrylics, watercolors, poster paints, finger paints) and drawing materials (pens, pencils, colored chalk) Easel, bulletin board, chalk board, drawing boards or tables Flat file storage Props for still lifes Variety of clip-on flood lights, flashlight, colored gels Cameras (35mm, disposable, digital) Computer with color printer and scanner: e-mail and Internet connection SCIENCE/EXPERIMENT CENTER (for encouraging students' Logical/Mathematical, Naturalist, Visual/Spatial Intelligences) Field guides and science resource books Popular science magazines Biographies of scientists and inventors Exploration and experimentation tools Magnifying glass, microscope, telescope, or binoculars Megaphones, cones and microphones Measurement devices (rulers, graduated cylinders, etc.) Bug jars and boxes, plastic containers for collecting specimens (botanical, entomological, geological, etc.) Teacher-written index card challenges "What happens if you..." (students make predictions, then conduct experiments) Computer with color printer: probe-ware, robotics, spreadsheets, and timeliners. Science-based software such as The Voyage of the Mimi (Sunburst), The Great Space Rescue (Tom Snyder Software) and reference CD-ROMs MUSIC CENTER (for encouraging students' Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal Intelligences) Mat on the floor Cassette or CD player with headphones (optional: jack so that two students can listen to same music at the same time) instruments from a variety of multicultural backgrounds Books about famous composers and musicians Books of poems and stories that students can set to music Books of collected lyrics Computer with microphone, speakers, and earphones plus MIDI connector and keyboard: music composition software, CD-ROMs designed for music study, CDs for incorporating sound into multimedia presentations MATH CENTER (for encouraging students' Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Puzzles and games that involve logical thinking (looking for patterns, sequences, process of elimination, inference, etc.) Arithmetic and graphing calculators with instructions on how to solve common types of problems (e.g. percentages, averages, etc.) Maps, charts, timelines, Web sites -- vivid examples of how math and logical thinking can relate to social studies, science and language arts "Math manipulatives," such as unifix cubes, pattern blocks, cuisinaire rods, and geoboards Computer with color printer and links to download data from graphing calculators, spreadsheet, graphing, and 2 - and 3-D geometry programs BUILD-IT, PAINT IT CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Materials for attaching things to other things (glue, staplers, sewing materials, nails and screws, pins, clips, etc.) Wood, metal, Styrofoam, recycled containers, bottles, cardboard, and tools to work with them Various types and colors of paper and cardboard (for creating a homemade board game, etc.) Variety of writing implements (markers, crayons) Variety of fabric scraps Modeling clay Large rolls of mural paper for scenery backdrops for performances Computer with color printer: developmental level design software (younger students use Car Builder; middle school might use Roller Coaster Builder; older students need CAD-CAM (computer assisted design-computer assisted manufacturing) software and Internet connection PERFORMANCE CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal) Wigs, costumes, shoes Washable makeup Masks Props Cassette or CD-player for background music Stage area Learning Centers, also called "Learning Stations", are situations around the classroom that a teacher sets up for students to work in either small group or individual activities. Each of these centers has supplies and materials that work well together and give students the tools to complete activities and mini-projects -- either in groups of two to three students or individually. READING/WRITING CENTER (for encouraging students' Verbal/Linguistic; Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences) Fiction and non-fiction books on a variety of topics, in many genres Illustrated books Books on tape with related book in hard copy Books, articles, and papers written by students Cushions for quiet reading or for group discussion Word games (Boggle, Wheel of Fortune, Scrabble, Password) Creative writing tools (variety of pens, paper, etc.); tape recorder; magazines that can be cut up for images; story starter books and cards Yellow pages; other address resource books List of addresses and phone numbers of relevant organizations Computer with color printer: concept mapping software, word processor, e-mail and Internet connection Multimedia presentation tools (e.g. HyperStudio, PowerPoint etc.) ILLUSTRATION/VISUAL EXPRESSION CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal Intelligences) Canvas or dropcloth Painting (acrylics, watercolors, poster paints, finger paints) and drawing materials (pens, pencils, colored chalk) Easel, bulletin board, chalk board, drawing boards or tables Flat file storage Props for still lifes Variety of clip-on flood lights, flashlight, colored gels Cameras (35mm, disposable, digital) Computer with color printer and scanner: e-mail and Internet connection SCIENCE/EXPERIMENT CENTER (for encouraging students' Logical/Mathematical, Naturalist, Visual/Spatial Intelligences) Field guides and science resource books Popular science magazines Biographies of scientists and inventors Exploration and experimentation tools Magnifying glass, microscope, telescope, or binoculars Megaphones, cones and microphones Measurement devices (rulers, graduated cylinders, etc.) Bug jars and boxes, plastic containers for collecting specimens (botanical, entomological, geological, etc.) Teacher-written index card challenges "What happens if you..." (students make predictions, then conduct experiments) Computer with color printer: probe-ware, robotics, spreadsheets, and timeliners. Science-based software such as The Voyage of the Mimi (Sunburst), The Great Space Rescue (Tom Snyder Software) and reference CD-ROMs MUSIC CENTER (for encouraging students' Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal Intelligences) Mat on the floor Cassette or CD player with headphones (optional: jack so that two students can listen to same music at the same time) instruments from a variety of multicultural backgrounds Books about famous composers and musicians Books of poems and stories that students can set to music Books of collected lyrics Computer with microphone, speakers, and earphones plus MIDI connector and keyboard: music composition software, CD-ROMs designed for music study, CDs for incorporating sound into multimedia presentations MATH CENTER (for encouraging students' Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Puzzles and games that involve logical thinking (looking for patterns, sequences, process of elimination, inference, etc.) Arithmetic and graphing calculators with instructions on how to solve common types of problems (e.g. percentages, averages, etc.) Maps, charts, timelines, Web sites -- vivid examples of how math and logical thinking can relate to social studies, science and language arts "Math manipulatives," such as unifix cubes, pattern blocks, cuisinaire rods, and geoboards Computer with color printer and links to download data from graphing calculators, spreadsheet, graphing, and 2 - and 3-D geometry programs BUILD-IT, PAINT IT CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Materials for attaching things to other things (glue, staplers, sewing materials, nails and screws, pins, clips, etc.) Wood, metal, Styrofoam, recycled containers, bottles, cardboard, and tools to work with them Various types and colors of paper and cardboard (for creating a homemade board game, etc.) Variety of writing implements (markers, crayons) Variety of fabric scraps Modeling clay Large rolls of mural paper for scenery backdrops for performances Computer with color printer: developmental level design software (younger students use Car Builder; middle school might use Roller Coaster Builder; older students need CAD-CAM (computer assisted design-computer assisted manufacturing) software and Internet connection PERFORMANCE CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal) Wigs, costumes, shoes Washable makeup Masks Props Cassette or CD-player for background music Stage area

37. Learning Centers (Conclusion) Math Center (Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Build It/Paint It Center (Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Performance Center (Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal) MATH CENTER (for encouraging students' Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Puzzles and games that involve logical thinking (looking for patterns, sequences, process of elimination, inference, etc.) Arithmetic and graphing calculators with instructions on how to solve common types of problems (e.g. percentages, averages, etc.) Maps, charts, timelines, Web sites -- vivid examples of how math and logical thinking can relate to social studies, science and language arts "Math manipulatives," such as unifix cubes, pattern blocks, cuisinaire rods, and geoboards Computer with color printer and links to download data from graphing calculators, spreadsheet, graphing, and 2 - and 3-D geometry programs BUILD-IT, PAINT IT CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Materials for attaching things to other things (glue, staplers, sewing materials, nails and screws, pins, clips, etc.) Wood, metal, Styrofoam, recycled containers, bottles, cardboard, and tools to work with them Various types and colors of paper and cardboard (for creating a homemade board game, etc.) Variety of writing implements (markers, crayons) Variety of fabric scraps Modeling clay Large rolls of mural paper for scenery backdrops for performances Computer with color printer: developmental level design software (younger students use Car Builder; middle school might use Roller Coaster Builder; older students need CAD-CAM (computer assisted design-computer assisted manufacturing) software and Internet connection PERFORMANCE CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal) Wigs, costumes, shoes Washable makeup Masks Props Cassette or CD-player for background music Stage area MATH CENTER (for encouraging students' Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Puzzles and games that involve logical thinking (looking for patterns, sequences, process of elimination, inference, etc.) Arithmetic and graphing calculators with instructions on how to solve common types of problems (e.g. percentages, averages, etc.) Maps, charts, timelines, Web sites -- vivid examples of how math and logical thinking can relate to social studies, science and language arts "Math manipulatives," such as unifix cubes, pattern blocks, cuisinaire rods, and geoboards Computer with color printer and links to download data from graphing calculators, spreadsheet, graphing, and 2 - and 3-D geometry programs BUILD-IT, PAINT IT CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Materials for attaching things to other things (glue, staplers, sewing materials, nails and screws, pins, clips, etc.) Wood, metal, Styrofoam, recycled containers, bottles, cardboard, and tools to work with them Various types and colors of paper and cardboard (for creating a homemade board game, etc.) Variety of writing implements (markers, crayons) Variety of fabric scraps Modeling clay Large rolls of mural paper for scenery backdrops for performances Computer with color printer: developmental level design software (younger students use Car Builder; middle school might use Roller Coaster Builder; older students need CAD-CAM (computer assisted design-computer assisted manufacturing) software and Internet connection PERFORMANCE CENTER (for encouraging students' Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal) Wigs, costumes, shoes Washable makeup Masks Props Cassette or CD-player for background music Stage area

38. Simulations Simulation Activities help develop students' intelligences by allowing them to experiment with real-world activities

39. Simulations Role-Playing Students are given the opportunity to “become” a different person Debating Encourage students to think of topics in complex ways to support their arguments Simulation Software Programs such as SimCity & Virtus Walk Through To supplement classroom work, consider using some of these simulation activities: Role-Playing - To understand the various sides of an event (whether presented in literature, or in a history class), it is often useful to let students research the issue from a particular viewpoint, then be put in an imaginary situation where they must speak from that point-of-view. Another form of role-playing is allowing a student the opportunity to "become" a person from history and present a short lecture to other students, then answer any questions they have. Debating - Debates and panel discussions encourage students to think of topics in complex ways. Encourage students to create visual aids to support their arguments (lists, charts, illustrations, etc.). In mock-trials students play out an imaginary case and decide if a fictional defendant is innocent or guilty. Simulation Software - Popular CD-ROM programs such as SimCity present complex, open-ended problem-solving situations that students frequently have to use many of their intelligences to solve. GenScope provides an interactive environment where chromosomes, genes, and observable traits can be manipulated and viewed in a variety of ways. Virtus WalkThrough and similar programs present environments for people to experience. To supplement classroom work, consider using some of these simulation activities: Role-Playing - To understand the various sides of an event (whether presented in literature, or in a history class), it is often useful to let students research the issue from a particular viewpoint, then be put in an imaginary situation where they must speak from that point-of-view. Another form of role-playing is allowing a student the opportunity to "become" a person from history and present a short lecture to other students, then answer any questions they have. Debating - Debates and panel discussions encourage students to think of topics in complex ways. Encourage students to create visual aids to support their arguments (lists, charts, illustrations, etc.). In mock-trials students play out an imaginary case and decide if a fictional defendant is innocent or guilty. Simulation Software - Popular CD-ROM programs such as SimCity present complex, open-ended problem-solving situations that students frequently have to use many of their intelligences to solve. GenScope provides an interactive environment where chromosomes, genes, and observable traits can be manipulated and viewed in a variety of ways. Virtus WalkThrough and similar programs present environments for people to experience.

40. Presentations To perform a successful presentation the student must understand the subject matter, the psychology of the planned audience, different presentation strategies, and how to organize the information in the most efficient and effective manner.

41. Presentations Write Journals, Interviews, Diaries, Letters to Experts Make/Invent/Design/Draw Models, Graphs, Multimedia Presentations Figure Out/Analyze Create simulations, environmental concern Perform/Present A play, role-play lecture WRITE: poems short plays screenplays legal briefs song lyrics journals diaries memoirs travelogue interviews newspaper or newsletter letters (or email) to experts an original advertisement new ending for story or song "what if..." thought experiment MAKE/INVENT/DESIGN/DRAW: posters cartoons timelines models chart map graphs paintings (with explanations similar to museum exhibits) board game concept maps multimedia presentations FIGURE OUT/ANALYZE solutions to problems in your school or community math formulas to explain a problem, or pose a solution categorization method for some plants or animals in your area based on careful observation (perhaps a small collection, or homemade "museum") a plan for a scavenger hunt a treasure hunt (in which clues involve vocabulary from the topic) collect objects in nature the night sky, food chain, water cycle, or other science topic local, national, or international environmental concern create simulations PERFORM/PRESENT a play a concert role-play lecture (such as a well-known person from history) a dance based on literature or historical event collected songs about a topic or from an era WRITE: poems short plays screenplays legal briefs song lyrics journals diaries memoirs travelogue interviews newspaper or newsletter letters (or email) to experts an original advertisement new ending for story or song "what if..." thought experiment MAKE/INVENT/DESIGN/DRAW: posters cartoons timelines models chart map graphs paintings (with explanations similar to museum exhibits) board game concept maps multimedia presentations FIGURE OUT/ANALYZE solutions to problems in your school or community math formulas to explain a problem, or pose a solution categorization method for some plants or animals in your area based on careful observation (perhaps a small collection, or homemade "museum") a plan for a scavenger hunt a treasure hunt (in which clues involve vocabulary from the topic) collect objects in nature the night sky, food chain, water cycle, or other science topic local, national, or international environmental concern create simulations PERFORM/PRESENT a play a concert role-play lecture (such as a well-known person from history) a dance based on literature or historical event collected songs about a topic or from an era

42. The Ultimate Goals of MI To increase student understanding To legitimize the powerful and wide-reaching curricula many teachers have always delivered. To systematize and broadcast the theory and methodology of an enriched curriculum.

43. What Do Multiple Intelligence Lesson Plans Look Like? Lesson plans are the blueprints of teaching. Judicious and effective use of M.I. in your teaching may involve pairing two intelligences or grouping three in a lesson. There is no innate benefit to be gained by striving to include more than three intelligences in an activity. While there are principles that good teachers follow when creating lesson plans, experience reveals that it is what the implementer makes of the plan, not the plan itself, that is most important. M.I. techniques and subject matter enhance and enrich a lesson in a particular subject. Veteran teachers often revisit and revise favorite lesson plans many times as new inspiration strikes them. Sometimes brilliant lesson plans take fire from the spark of a colleague's plan, sometimes from a deep empathy for the subject. Lesson plans are the blueprints of teaching.

44. Lesson Plan Topic Goals/Objectives Available Time (days, weeks, class periods) Assessment Options Supplies Introducing the Topic Plan for using “Using Learning Centers” Plan for Using Simulations Plan for Using Presentations A. The Topic What is the subject matter you are teaching? Do your students have any previous experience with this topic? How motivated are your students to learn about this topic? What connections can you make to the students' lives to help motivate them about the topic? B. Your Goals and Objectives What do students want to learn about the topic? What do students need to learn based on state or national curriculum goals? C. Available Time The amount of time you have to devote to this subject affects how much you will need to focus the topic. Since the goal of M.I. theory is to help cultivate students' understanding, it is worth thinking about how to make your lessons meaningful experiences that connect to other things students have learned, and will learn. Longer blocks of time (i.e., double periods) are instrumental to more in-depth work. D. Assessment How will you know if students have an understanding of the subject matter? To supplement traditional testing methods (paper tests), what other options can you give students to "show what they know?" What are some ways in which students can present their knowledge to others? Will you prepare rubrics for students to help them set reasonable goals and take the initiative in editing and producing their own work? Rubrics may assist students in a public speaking course to assure they have all of the components of a comprehensive report. ASSESSMENT OPTIONS: Oral presentations with visual aids Write report etc. Perform play E. Supplies/Materials You might want to complete this section after you have figured out the scope of your lessons. SUPPLIES: F. Topic Introduction How will you introduce the subject matter to students? Some examples are group discussion, watch video, read a story, brainstorm relevant questions, etc. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC:

45. Benefits of Using MI in the Classroom Providing opportunities for authentic learning based on your students' needs, interests and talents. Parent and community involvement may increase. Students will demonstrate and share their strengths. Teaching for understanding Benefit You may come to regard intellectual ability more broadly. Drawing a picture, composing, or listening to music, watching a performance -- these activities can be a vital door to learning -- as important as writing and mathematics. Studies show that many students who perform poorly on traditional tests are turned on to learning when classroom experiences incorporate artistic, athletic, and musical activities. Benefit You will provide opportunities for authentic learning based on your students' needs, interests and talents. The multiple intelligence classroom acts like the "real" world: the author and the illustrator of a book are equally valuable creators. Students become more active, involved learners. Benefit Parent and community involvement in your school may increase. This happens as students demonstrate work before panels and audiences. Activities involving apprenticeship learning bring members of the community into the learning process. Benefit Students will be able to demonstrate and share their strengths. Building strengths gives a student the motivation to be a "specialist." This can in turn lead to increased self-esteem. Benefit When you "teach for understanding," your students accumulate positive educational experiences and the capability for creating solutions to problems in life. Benefit

46. Countless educators have incorporated multiple intelligence theory into their work. The multiple intelligences approach encourages teachers to regard intellectual ability more broadly. Teachers are able to see that visual arts, music and dance can be just as valuable to students' understanding of the world they live in as traditional academic subjects. Numerous teachers and administrators have applied aspects of multiple intelligence theory in their classrooms and schools. Through the serious and in-depth study of just a few subjects, rather than a minimal amount of attention to many subjects, Howard Gardner believes that students will develop a passion for exploring truly profound ideas. The multiple intelligences approach encourages teachers to regard intellectual ability more broadly. Teachers are able to see that visual arts, music and dance can be just as valuable to students' understanding of the world they live in as traditional academic subjects. Numerous teachers and administrators have applied aspects of multiple intelligence theory in their classrooms and schools. Through the serious and in-depth study of just a few subjects, rather than a minimal amount of attention to many subjects, Howard Gardner believes that students will develop a passion for exploring truly profound ideas.

47. Putting the Styles Together Remember that no single measurement of style ensures that a learner’s needs will be met. It is more important to build an adaptable learning environment that presents the material in a variety of methods than try to determine each learners personal style. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/styles.html#kolb http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/styles.html#kolb

48. Recognizing Your Own Style Ensures you do not unintentionally force one learning style upon your learners. The more styles you address, the easier the instruction will be received by the learners. Material presented in a variety of methods keeps the learners interested and reinforces itself. Likewise, recognizing your own style will help to ensure you do not unintentionally force one learning style upon the learners. The more styles you address, the easier the instruction will be received by the learners. This is because you will be striving to reach their needs, not yours. Also, material presented in a variety of methods keeps the learners interested and reinforces itself.Likewise, recognizing your own style will help to ensure you do not unintentionally force one learning style upon the learners. The more styles you address, the easier the instruction will be received by the learners. This is because you will be striving to reach their needs, not yours. Also, material presented in a variety of methods keeps the learners interested and reinforces itself.

49. What’s My Style? Teaching Style Surveys: http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html http://www.creativelearningcentre.com/products.asp?page=TSAEDU&theme=lsat Learning Style Surveys: http://longleaf.net/learningstyle.html http://ttc.coe.uga.edu/surveys/LearningStyleInv.html http://www.learning-styles-online.com/inventory/questions.asp?cookieset=y

50. Lesson Plans

51. Essential Elements Objectives What students will be able to do as a result of the lesson Procedures What the teacher will do to get the students there Evaluation What the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively Evaluation Can be seen as OPPORTUNITIES watching students work, assigning application activities, getting feedback, etc.Evaluation Can be seen as OPPORTUNITIES watching students work, assigning application activities, getting feedback, etc.

52. Many Lesson Plans Also Include: Materials needed for the Class Period Time Estimates Procedural Sub points Materials may be anything from an Overhead Projector to a particular CD Time Estimates and Procedural Subpoints refer to how you will progress through the lesson. How much time you will spend on each section.Materials may be anything from an Overhead Projector to a particular CD Time Estimates and Procedural Subpoints refer to how you will progress through the lesson. How much time you will spend on each section.

53. Madeline Hunter Lesson Plan Format Anticipatory Set Statement of Objectives Instructional Input Modeling Check for Understanding Guided Practice Independent Practice 7 element format Just one way to structure a lesson developed for math classes http://www.huntington.edu/education/lessonplanning/Plans.html7 element format Just one way to structure a lesson developed for math classes http://www.huntington.edu/education/lessonplanning/Plans.html

54. Anticipatory Set Setting the Stage Pearl Harbor Show some pictures of Pearl Harbor Show a movie Attention-getter FocuserAttention-getter Focuser

55. Statement of Objectives Tell students what they’ll be able to do as a result of the lesson. The student will summarize reasons for U.S. entrance into WWII The student will evaluate the pros and cons of these reasons Action verbsAction verbs

56. Instructional Input May be lecture, demonstration, explanation, instructions, etc. Discuss Background from homework reading Construct Timeline of WWII events Show Anti-Japan and anti-German posters and news clips

57. Modeling Demonstrate Show them what you just told them. Discuss Background from homework reading Construct Timeline of WWII events Show Anti-Japan and anti-German posters and news clips This looks the same because we are showing the students at this stage and our last instructional input for this lesson happened to be visual as well.This looks the same because we are showing the students at this stage and our last instructional input for this lesson happened to be visual as well.

58. Check for Understanding Ask questions Watch faces Perform during each activity.

59. Guided Practice Help students start practicing new skills, applying new knowledge Construct Timeline of WWII events Groups Pose legitimate reasons for a country to go to war Refer to textbook and previous class notes Notice how these items overlap during various stages of the lesson plan. We are back at constructing the timeline again.Notice how these items overlap during various stages of the lesson plan. We are back at constructing the timeline again.

60. Independent Practice Turn them loose to work on their own Journal What role did emotions play in U.S. entrance into WWII? Defend or critique the reasons for going to war. Give them a homework assignment or something they can do as an individual effort.Give them a homework assignment or something they can do as an individual effort.

61. Discovery Lesson Plan Equipment Set the stage Don’t state objectives yet Give instructions Check for understanding Guided practice (lab) Discussion, regrouping Statement of objectives Independent practice (lab journal) Assessment For a LAB Examples: Cosmetology Ask for other voc tech depts that might use this formatFor a LAB Examples: Cosmetology Ask for other voc tech depts that might use this format

62. Group Work Equipment Set the stage State objectives Give instructions Check for understanding Group work Guided practice Discussion Regrouping Summary Assessment COOPERATIVE LEARNING Here we see a specific area for discussion after the guided practice as well as an opportunity for students to regroup. The summary offers the student a chance to reinforce key concepts and ideas of the lesson they had just covered.COOPERATIVE LEARNING Here we see a specific area for discussion after the guided practice as well as an opportunity for students to regroup. The summary offers the student a chance to reinforce key concepts and ideas of the lesson they had just covered.

63. Instructional Plan for a Single Lesson Briefly describe the students in the class, including those with special needs. Briefly provide an overview of the concept(s) being taught. What are your goals for the lesson? What do you want them to learn? Turn to Career Exploration This was an extremely beneficial exercise I had to complete for my Masters degree here at SNHU. Here are some of the questions I had to answer before I prepared my lesson. I want to share them with you to illustrate how much thought goes into a lesson plan even when you don’t even realize it.Turn to Career Exploration This was an extremely beneficial exercise I had to complete for my Masters degree here at SNHU. Here are some of the questions I had to answer before I prepared my lesson. I want to share them with you to illustrate how much thought goes into a lesson plan even when you don’t even realize it.

64. Instructional Plan (Cont.) What are your specific behavior objectives for this lesson? How do these goals relate to broader curriculum goals in the discipline as a whole or in other disciplines? Why are those goals suitable for this group of students?

65. Instructional Plan (Conc.) How do you plan to engage students in the content? Include time estimates. What difficulties do you anticipate students may have and how will you address them? What instructional materials will you use? How do you plan to assess students?

66. Lesson Plan Sample Let’s look at an example LessonPlan Unit 1 Chapter 1Let’s look at an example LessonPlan Unit 1 Chapter 1

67. Bloom’s Taxonomy

68. Blooms Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html Illustration from: http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here http://www.officeport.com/edu/bloomq.htm Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html Illustration from: http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here http://www.officeport.com/edu/bloomq.htm

69. The Assumptions: Abilities can be measured along a  continuum from plain and simple to rather complex As teachers we tend to ask questions in the "knowledge" category 80% to 90% of the time. These questions are not bad, but using them all the time is. Try to utilize higher order level of questions. These questions require much more "brain power" and a more extensive and elaborate answer. These questions are not bad, but using them all the time is. Try to utilize higher order level of questions. These questions require much more "brain power" and a more extensive and elaborate answer.

70. Knowledge observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc. http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html Who, what, when, where, how ...? Describe Question Cues:list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc. http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html Who, what, when, where, how ...? Describe

71. Comprehension understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.htmlQuestion Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html

72. Application use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover How is...an example of...? How is...related to...? Why is...significant? Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover How is...an example of...? How is...related to...? Why is...significant?

73. Analysis seeing patterns organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer What are the parts or features of...? Classify...according to... Outline/diagram... How does...compare/contrast with...? What evidence can you list for...? Question Cues:analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer What are the parts or features of...? Classify...according to... Outline/diagram... How does...compare/contrast with...? What evidence can you list for...?

74. Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict, draw conclusions Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite What would you predict/infer from...? What ideas can you add to...? How would you create/design a new...? What might happen if you combined...? What solutions would you suggest for...? Question Cues:combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite What would you predict/infer from...? What ideas can you add to...? How would you create/design a new...? What might happen if you combined...? What solutions would you suggest for...?

75. Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize From Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of educational objectives. Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright (c) 1984 by Pearson Education. Adapted by permission of the publisher Do you agree...? What do you think about...? What is the most important...? Place the following in order of priority... How would you decide about...? What criteria would you use to assess...? Question Cuesassess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize From Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of educational objectives.Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright (c) 1984 by Pearson Education.Adapted by permission of the publisher Do you agree...? What do you think about...? What is the most important...? Place the following in order of priority... How would you decide about...? What criteria would you use to assess...?

76. Instructional Scaffolding When most of us hear the word “scaffolding” we think of new office buildings going up, or aging skyscrapers needing repair. Scaffolding is what gets erected outside a tall building so that workers can climb up and hammer away. From the ground below scaffolding sometimes looks like an external skeleton, yet any long gaze will reveal it has nothing to do with supporting the actual weight of the building it surrounds. Instead, what is evident is the short-lived nature of its framework, individual pieces of which are designed to disassemble quickly. Frequent passersby spot regular changes in vertical and lateral movement. One day the scaffolding spreads north or retreats east; the next, it stretches higher or drops lower. Scaffolding in construction is a means to an end; as soon as it’s no longer needed, it disappears. Instructional scaffolding is similarly transient. Scaffolding in an educational context is a process by which a teacher provides students with a temporary framework for learning. Done correctly, such structuring encourages a student to develop his or her own initiative, motivation and resourcefulness. Once students build knowledge and develop skills on their own, elements of the framework are dismantled. Eventually, the initial scaffolding is removed altogether; students no longer need it. http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~group4/Lawson/Lawson%20Paper.docWhen most of us hear the word “scaffolding” we think of new office buildings going up, or aging skyscrapers needing repair. Scaffolding is what gets erected outside a tall building so that workers can climb up and hammer away. From the ground below scaffolding sometimes looks like an external skeleton, yet any long gaze will reveal it has nothing to do with supporting the actual weight of the building it surrounds. Instead, what is evident is the short-lived nature of its framework, individual pieces of which are designed to disassemble quickly. Frequent passersby spot regular changes in vertical and lateral movement. One day the scaffolding spreads north or retreats east; the next, it stretches higher or drops lower. Scaffolding in construction is a means to an end; as soon as it’s no longer needed, it disappears. Instructional scaffolding is similarly transient. Scaffolding in an educational context is a process by which a teacher provides students with a temporary framework for learning. Done correctly, such structuring encourages a student to develop his or her own initiative, motivation and resourcefulness. Once students build knowledge and develop skills on their own, elements of the framework are dismantled. Eventually, the initial scaffolding is removed altogether; students no longer need it. http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~group4/Lawson/Lawson%20Paper.doc

77. Today’s Learners Are challenged to: (a) know how to learn, (b) access changing information, (c) apply what is learned, and (d) address complex real-world problems in order to be successful http://www.vtaide.com/png/ERIC/Scaffolding.htm The ultimate academic goal is for students to become independent lifetime learners, so that they can continue to learn on their own or with limited support. http://www.vtaide.com/png/ERIC/Scaffolding.htm The ultimate academic goal is for students to become independent lifetime learners, so that they can continue to learn on their own or with limited support.

78. What is Scaffold Instruction? Scaffolding is a process in which students are given support until they can apply new skills and strategies independently When students are learning new or difficult tasks, they are given more assistance. As they begin to demonstrate task mastery, the assistance or support is decreased gradually in order to shift the responsibility for learning from the teacher to the students. Thus, as the students assume more responsibility for their learning, the teacher provides less support When students are learning new or difficult tasks, they are given more assistance. As they begin to demonstrate task mastery, the assistance or support is decreased gradually in order to shift the responsibility for learning from the teacher to the students. Thus, as the students assume more responsibility for their learning, the teacher provides less support

79. Essential Elements Pre-engagement with the student and the curriculum Establish a shared goal Actively diagnose student needs and understandings Provide tailored assistance Note that these elements do not have to occur in the sequence listed. Pre-engagement with the student and the curriculum - The teacher considers curriculum goals and the students' needs to select appropriate tasks. Establish a shared goal - The students may become more motivated and invested in the learning process when the teacher works with each student to plan instructional goals. Actively diagnose student needs and understandings - The teacher must be knowledgeable of content and sensitive to the students (e.g., aware of the students' background knowledge and misconceptions) to determine if they are making progress. Provide tailored assistance - This may include cueing or prompting, questioning, modeling, telling, or discussing. The teacher uses these as needed and adjusts them to meet the students' needs. Note that these elements do not have to occur in the sequence listed. Pre-engagement with the student and the curriculum - The teacher considers curriculum goals and the students' needs to select appropriate tasks. Establish a shared goal - The students may become more motivated and invested in the learning process when the teacher works with each student to plan instructional goals. Actively diagnose student needs and understandings - The teacher must be knowledgeable of content and sensitive to the students (e.g., aware of the students' background knowledge and misconceptions) to determine if they are making progress.

80. Essential Elements (Cont.) Maintain pursuit of the goal Give feedback Control for frustration and risk Assist internalization, independence, and generalization to other contexts Maintain pursuit of the goal - The teacher can ask questions and request clarification as well as offer praise and encouragement to help students remain focused on their goals. Give feedback - To help students learn to monitor their own progress, the teacher can summarize current progress and explicitly note behaviors that contributed to each student's success. Control for frustration and risk - The teacher can create an environment in which the students feel free to take risks with learning by encouraging them to try alternatives. Assist internalization, independence, and generalization to other contexts - This means that the teacher helps the students to be less dependent on the teacher's extrinsic signals to begin or complete a task and also provides the opportunity to practice the task in a variety of contexts Maintain pursuit of the goal - The teacher can ask questions and request clarification as well as offer praise and encouragement to help students remain focused on their goals.

81. Guidelines Begin with what the students can do Help the students achieve success quickly Help students “be” like everyone else Know when it is time to stop Help students to be independent when they have command of the activity Teachers who have successfully incorporated these scaffolding elements have offered these guidelines: Begin with what the students can do - Students need to be aware of their strengths and to feel good about tasks they can do with little or no assistance. Help students achieve success quickly - Although students need challenging work in order to learn, frustration and a "cycle of failure" may set in quickly if students do not experience frequent success. Help students to "be" like everyone else - Students want to be similar to and accepted by their peers. If given the opportunity and support, some students may work harder at tasks in order to appear more like their peers. Know when it is time to stop - Practicing is important to help students remember and apply their knowledge, but too much may impede the learning. "Less is more" may be the rule when students have demonstrated that they can perform the task. Help students to be independent when they have command of the activity - Teachers need to watch for clues from their students that show when and how much teacher assistance is needed. Scaffolding should be removed gradually as students begin to demonstrate mastery and then no longer provided when students can perform the task independently. Teachers who have successfully incorporated these scaffolding elements have offered these guidelines: Begin with what the students can do - Students need to be aware of their strengths and to feel good about tasks they can do with little or no assistance.

82. Features of Scaffolding Ownership Wish to learn Appropriateness Right level Support Structured guidance Collaboration Coaching Internalization Independent practice Applebee and Langer (1983 identify these five features as: Intentionality: The task has a clear overall purpose driving any separate activity that may contribute to the whole. Appropriateness: Instructional tasks pose problems that can be solved with help but which students could not successfully complete on their own. Structure: Modeling and questioning activities are structured around a model of appropriate approaches to the task and lead to a natural sequence of thought and language. Collaboration: The teacher’s response to student work recasts and expands upon the students’ efforts without rejecting what they have accomplished on their own. The teacher’s primary role is collaborative rather than evaluative. Internalization: External scaffolding for the activity is gradually withdrawn as the patterns are internalized by the students Applebee and Langer (1983 identify these five features as: Intentionality: The task has a clear overall purpose driving any separate activity that may contribute to the whole. Appropriateness: Instructional tasks pose problems that can be solved with help but which students could not successfully complete on their own. Structure: Modeling and questioning activities are structured around a model of appropriate approaches to the task and lead to a natural sequence of thought and language. Collaboration: The teacher’s response to student work recasts and expands upon the students’ efforts without rejecting what they have accomplished on their own. The teacher’s primary role is collaborative rather than evaluative. Internalization: External scaffolding for the activity is gradually withdrawn as the patterns are internalized by the students

83. Scaffolding Throughout the Lesson The teacher does it Teacher models The class does it Teacher and students work together to perform the task The group does it Students work with a partner The individual does it Independent practice stage The teacher does it - In other words, the teacher models how to perform a new or difficult task, such as how to use a graphic organizer. For example, the teacher may have a partially completed graphic organizer on an overhead transparency and "think aloud" as he or she describes how the graphic organizer illustrates the relationships among the information contained on it. The class does it - The teacher and students work together to perform the task. For example, the students may suggest information to be added to the graphic organizer. As the teacher writes the suggestions on the transparency, students fill in their own copies of the organizer. The group does it - Students work with a partner or a small cooperative group to complete a graphic organizer (i.e., either a partially completed or a blank one). The individual does it - This is the independent practice stage where individual students can demonstrate their task mastery (e.g., successfully completing a graphic organizer to demonstrate appropriate relationships among information) and receive the necessary practice to help them to perform the task automatically and quickly The teacher does it - In other words, the teacher models how to perform a new or difficult task, such as how to use a graphic organizer. For example, the teacher may have a partially completed graphic organizer on an overhead transparency and "think aloud" as he or she describes how the graphic organizer illustrates the relationships among the information contained on it.

84. Challenges & Cautions Use scaffolding when appropriate Be knowledgeable of the curriculum Practice generating possible prompts to help students Be positive, patient, and caring Use scaffolding when appropriate - Keep in mind that all students may not need scaffolding for all tasks and materials. Provide scaffolding to those students who need it only when they need it. Be knowledgeable of the curriculum - This will enable you to determine the difficulty level of particular materials and tasks as well as the time and supports necessary to benefit students. Practice generating possible prompts to help students - The first prompt you give to a student may fail, so you may have to give another prompt or think of a different wording to help the student give an appropriate response. Be positive, patient, and caring - You may become discouraged if students do not respond or are not successful as a result of your initial scaffolding efforts. Continue to convey a positive tone of voice in a caring manner along with continued scaffolding efforts and student success soon may be evident. Use scaffolding when appropriate - Keep in mind that all students may not need scaffolding for all tasks and materials. Provide scaffolding to those students who need it only when they need it.

85. Mapping

86. Curriculum Mapping

87. The Challenge from “Above” New standards and assessments Rising accountability and expectations No Child Left Behind Changing demographics

88. What is Curriculum Mapping? A technique for exploring the primary elements of curriculum What is taught How instruction occurs When instruction is delivered Curriculum mapping is a technique for exploring the primary elements of curriculum: What is taught. How instruction occurs. When instruction is delivered . http://www.rubiconatlas.com/mapping.htm Calendar-based mapping is a procedure for collecting a data base of the operational curriculum in school or district. It links content, skills, assessments to time and standards. Expands our understanding of the students’ learning experience Curriculum mapping is a technique for exploring the primary elements of curriculum: What is taught.How instruction occurs.When instruction is delivered . http://www.rubiconatlas.com/mapping.htm Calendar-based mapping is a procedure for collecting a data base of the operational curriculum in school or district. It links content, skills, assessments to time and standards. Expands our understanding of the students’ learning experience

89. Purposes address the total education of students create a "word snapshot" capture the content, skills, and assessments taught or administered by every teacher organize this information into an easily accessed visual that presents a timeline of instruction by teacher and course. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35

90. Why Mapping? Forge a common vision for teaching and learning Maps are a framework for curriculum decision making and a springboard for questions about the essential nature of the purposes of schooling By raising questions, we engage in ideas and not just present them. To determine what is taught, as it actually occurs in the classroom. Understand how students are being taught. To make appropriate, immediate modifications to the curriculum. To determine “why” certain performance results have been achieved. http://www.rubiconatlas.com/mapping.htm Questions regarding what is taught in the classroom are an intrinsic and useful part of formal education. Curriculum maps lead educators and their community to ask and answer the provoking questions that improve instruction and promote achievement. Members of an educational community can look at the school's curriculum map to discover when and if specific content is covered. This helps to reassure interested parents when specific information will be taught. It can also serve as the impetus to align courses horizontally. A curriculum map provides insight into the big picture, and responsible use of the information contained by a curriculum map can strengthen instruction school wide. Most teachers, department chairs, and supervisors for curriculum agree that the creation of pacing guides and course outlines is easy; convincing skeptics to accomplish the goals mandated by such documents often requires proof that following prescriptive curricula best serves the students. These skeptics are usually convinced when reviews of the curriculum map clearly magnify problem areas in instruction, such as redundancy, inconsistencies, and misalignment. A faculty or department review of a curriculum map is designed to motivate teachers to correct such problems, bringing their instruction into line with prescriptive curricula. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35 By raising questions, we engage in ideas and not just present them. To determine what is taught, as it actually occurs in the classroom.Understand how students are being taught.To make appropriate, immediate modifications to the curriculum.To determine “why” certain performance results have been achieved. http://www.rubiconatlas.com/mapping.htm Questions regarding what is taught in the classroom are an intrinsic and useful part of formal education. Curriculum maps lead educators and their community to ask and answer the provoking questions that improve instruction and promote achievement. Members of an educational community can look at the school's curriculum map to discover when and if specific content is covered. This helps to reassure interested parents when specific information will be taught. It can also serve as the impetus to align courses horizontally. A curriculum map provides insight into the big picture, and responsible use of the information contained by a curriculum map can strengthen instruction school wide. Most teachers, department chairs, and supervisors for curriculum agree that the creation of pacing guides and course outlines is easy; convincing skeptics to accomplish the goals mandated by such documents often requires proof that following prescriptive curricula best serves the students. These skeptics are usually convinced when reviews of the curriculum map clearly magnify problem areas in instruction, such as redundancy, inconsistencies, and misalignment. A faculty or department review of a curriculum map is designed to motivate teachers to correct such problems, bringing their instruction into line with prescriptive curricula. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35

91. Who Creates Them? There are two groups of people crucial to the creation of a curriculum map: the teachers who provide the information the curriculum team who organize the information. The curriculum team begins working before asking teachers to become involved. This group creates a vision of the curriculum map and investigates whether school or district resources permit such a vision to become reality. This organizational hub should be comprised of educational leaders within the school or system, and might include central office personnel, instructional leaders, and department chairpersons. Once a vision of the curriculum map is clear, the data collection process begins. Mandatory participation of all teachers is essential, as each provides information about the content, skills, and assessments administered in his/her class. The inclusion of every teacher's information determines the development of a comprehensive curriculum map that will eventually promote higher achievement. Teachers are requested to chronologically map important skills, content, and assessments addressed in each class taught. The information is then submitted to the organization team. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35The curriculum team begins working before asking teachers to become involved. This group creates a vision of the curriculum map and investigates whether school or district resources permit such a vision to become reality. This organizational hub should be comprised of educational leaders within the school or system, and might include central office personnel, instructional leaders, and department chairpersons. Once a vision of the curriculum map is clear, the data collection process begins. Mandatory participation of all teachers is essential, as each provides information about the content, skills, and assessments administered in his/her class. The inclusion of every teacher's information determines the development of a comprehensive curriculum map that will eventually promote higher achievement. Teachers are requested to chronologically map important skills, content, and assessments addressed in each class taught. The information is then submitted to the organization team. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35

92. Mapping is a Tool for: Communications Planning Resource allocation Staff development Communications - teachers, students, administration, parents, community Planning – curriculum, assessments, reforms Resource allocation - space, time, materials Staff developmentCommunications - teachers, students, administration, parents, community Planning – curriculum, assessments, reforms Resource allocation - space, time, materials Staff development

93. Mapping is a Blueprint To align content, skills and assessments Pace instruction over time Help discover gaps and repetitions Decide what stays and what gets cut out Identify areas for integration

94. Maps Tell Us What Is Going On Tell us what is taught They’re calendar based because they exist in time Provide us with a framework to evaluate student work When you have data you attack problems, not each other

95. Own the Map at the Local Level The text is not the curriculum The state standards are not the curriculum We make choices about content, skills and assessments for our students - a discrete group of learners The text is not the curriculum, what you do with it is the curriculum The state standards are not the curriculum, they come to life in our program We make choices about content, skills and assessments for our students - a discreet group of learnersThe text is not the curriculum, what you do with it is the curriculum The state standards are not the curriculum, they come to life in our program We make choices about content, skills and assessments for our students - a discreet group of learners

96. Mapping Fosters Teacher Creativity The map comes to life with the teachers in the classroom Teachers can provide creative approaches to reaching a common objective Stay focused on what is good for the student Instructional time is saved The map comes to life with the teachers in the classroom Teachers can provide creative approaches to reaching a common objective Stay focused on what's good for the child, we can disagree on the approach - we have a basis to compare Instructional time is saved by common entry / exit level skills and knowledgeThe map comes to life with the teachers in the classroom Teachers can provide creative approaches to reaching a common objective Stay focused on what's good for the child, we can disagree on the approach - we have a basis to compare Instructional time is saved by common entry / exit level skills and knowledge

97. Start by Looking at Samples of Student Work It produces a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of your program. Soon you’ll be talking about goals, instruction and schedules

98. Keep the Focus on Results Focus on the measurable competences Don’t teach to the test Approach skill development as multi-year endeavors Focus on the measurable competences Don’t teach to the test – teach the skills students need to be successful on the test Don’t spoonfeed Approach skill development as multi-year endeavorsFocus on the measurable competences Don’t teach to the test – teach the skills students need to be successful on the test Don’t spoonfeed Approach skill development as multi-year endeavors

99. It’s About the Process It’s dynamic, not a 5 year cycle It’s an occasion for teachers to learn We model higher level thinking

100. “A Work in Progress” Additions of new teachers Alterations to the program of studies Changes in state standards A curriculum map is a work in progress and schools that view it as such create and recreate review teams for it, always looking for ways to build bridges among curricula. Review teams work regularly to maintain an up-to-date curriculum map that can be reviewed quickly and efficiently by novice and veteran teachers alike. These regularly scheduled reviews preserve an on-the-same-page mindset among educators, asking and answering the questions that drive effective instruction. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35A curriculum map is a work in progress and schools that view it as such create and recreate review teams for it, always looking for ways to build bridges among curricula. Review teams work regularly to maintain an up-to-date curriculum map that can be reviewed quickly and efficiently by novice and veteran teachers alike. These regularly scheduled reviews preserve an on-the-same-page mindset among educators, asking and answering the questions that drive effective instruction. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/35

101. Let’s See Some Curriculum Maps

102. Concept Mapping

103. What is Concept Mapping? Concept mapping is a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. “the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Thus meaningful learning results when a person consciously and explicitly ties new knowledge to relevant concepts they already possess. Ausubel suggests that when meaningful learning occurs, it produces a series of changes within our entire cognitive structure, modifying existing concepts and forming new linkages between concepts. This is why meaningful learning is lasting and powerful whereas rote learning is easily forgotten and not easily applied in new learning or problem solving situations which the present science curricula so advocate. The Concept map is a device for representing the conceptual structure of a subject discipline in a two dimensional form which is analogous to a road map. A concept, as defined by Novak, is a regularity in objects or events designated by a specific label. Concept maps are diagrammatic representations which show meaningful relationships between concepts in the form of propositions. Propositions are two or more concept labels linked by words which provide information on relationships or describing connections between concepts. A concept map can be considered as somewhat similar to a spider chart, an organization chart or a flow diagram. The most useful form of a concept map for teaching and learning is one arranged in a hierarchical organization which the more general and more inclusive concepts at the top of the map and the more concrete and specific ones at the bottom. Concepts do not exist in isolation. Each concept depends on its relationships to many others for meaning. A concept map depicts hierarchy and relationships among concepts. It demands clarity of meaning and integration of crucial details. Can be made in Inspiration/MindGenius 21-day free trial http://users.edte.utwente.nl/lanzing/cm_home.htm“the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Thus meaningful learning results when a person consciously and explicitly ties new knowledge to relevant concepts they already possess. Ausubel suggests that when meaningful learning occurs, it produces a series of changes within our entire cognitive structure, modifying existing concepts and forming new linkages between concepts. This is why meaningful learning is lasting and powerful whereas rote learning is easily forgotten and not easily applied in new learning or problem solving situations which the present science curricula so advocate. The Concept map is a device for representing the conceptual structure of a subject discipline in a two dimensional form which is analogous to a road map. A concept, as defined by Novak, is a regularity in objects or events designated by a specific label. Concept maps are diagrammatic representations which show meaningful relationships between concepts in the form of propositions. Propositions are two or more concept labels linked by words which provide information on relationships or describing connections between concepts.

104. Knowledge Graphs: Networks of Concepts Networks consist of nodes (points/vertices) and links (arcs/edges). Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between concepts.

105. Purposes Generate ideas Communicate complex ideas Aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge; Assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding. to generate ideas (brain storming, etc.); to design a complex structure (long texts, hypermedia, large web sites, etc.); to communicate complex ideas; to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge; to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding. to generate ideas (brain storming, etc.); to design a complex structure (long texts, hypermedia, large web sites, etc.); to communicate complex ideas; to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge; to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding.

106. What is Mind Mapping®? A mind map consists of a central word or concept around the central word you draw the 5 to 10 main ideas that relate to that word. You then take each of those child words and again draw the 5 to 10 main ideas that relate to each of those words

107. The Difference Between Concept Mapping & Mind Mapping? A mind map has only one main concept, While a concept map may have several. This comes down to the point that a mind map can be represented as a tree, while a concept map may need a network representation. This comes down to the point that a mind map can be represented as a tree, while a concept map may need a network representation.

108. Types of Concept Maps Spider Concept Map Hierarchy Concept Map Flowchart Concept Map Systems Concept Map . http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/ACES100/Mind/c-m2.html . http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/ACES100/Mind/c-m2.html

109. SPIDER CONCEPT MAP The"spider" concept map is organized by placing the central theme or unifying factor in the center of the map. Outwardly radiating sub-themes surround the center of the map. "Should there be logging in old growth forests?", make a spider map to represent the pro's and con's of this issue. On one side of this issue, there are topics like biodiversity and spotted owls that should be depicted on the map. On the other side of the issue, there are topics related to the towns and families that rely on logging income that should be on the map. There are also issues of logging and foreign trade, logging and recreation, and so on. Try to come up a with a map that represents the whole issue. SPIDER CONCEPT MAPThe"spider" concept map is organized by placing the central theme or unifying factor in the center of the map. Outwardly radiating sub-themes surround the center of the map. "Should there be logging in old growth forests?", make a spider map to represent the pro's and con's of this issue. On one side of this issue, there are topics like biodiversity and spotted owls that should be depicted on the map. On the other side of the issue, there are topics related to the towns and families that rely on logging income that should be on the map. There are also issues of logging and foreign trade, logging and recreation, and so on. Try to come up a with a map that represents the whole issue.

110. HIERARCHY CONCEPT MAP The hierarchy concept map presents information in a descending order of importance. The most important information is placed on the top. Distinguishing factors determine the placement of the information.HIERARCHY CONCEPT MAPThe hierarchy concept map presents information in a descending order of importance. The most important information is placed on the top. Distinguishing factors determine the placement of the information.

111. FLOWCHART CONCEPT MAP The flowchart concept map organizes information in a linear format. FLOWCHART CONCEPT MAPThe flowchart concept map organizes information in a linear format.

112. SYSTEMS CONCEPT MAP The systems concept map organizes information in a format which is similar to a flowchart with the addition of 'INPUTS' and 'OUTPUTS'SYSTEMS CONCEPT MAPThe systems concept map organizes information in a format which is similar to a flowchart with the addition of 'INPUTS' and 'OUTPUTS'

113. Use of Concept Maps in Teaching Teaching a topic Reinforce understanding Check learning and identify misconception Evaluation Teaching a topic In constructing concept maps, difficult concepts can be clarified and can be arranged in a systematic order. Using concept maps in teaching helps teachers to be more aware of the key concepts and relationship among them. This helps teachers to convey a clear general picture of the topics and their relationships to their students. In this way, it is less likely to miss and misinterpret any important concepts. 2. Reinforce understanding Using concept maps can reinforce students' understanding and learning. This enables visualization of key concepts and summarizes their relationship. 3.Check learning and identify misconception The use of concept maps can also assist teachers in evaluating the process of teaching. They can assess the students' achievement by identifying misconception and missing concepts. 4.Evaluation Students' achievement can be tested or examined by concept mapping. Teaching a topic In constructing concept maps, difficult concepts can be clarified and can be arranged in a systematic order. Using concept maps in teaching helps teachers to be more aware of the key concepts and relationship among them. This helps teachers to convey a clear general picture of the topics and their relationships to their students. In this way, it is less likely to miss and misinterpret any important concepts. 2. Reinforce understanding Using concept maps can reinforce students' understanding and learning. This enables visualization of key concepts and summarizes their relationship. 3.Check learning and identify misconception The use of concept maps can also assist teachers in evaluating the process of teaching. They can assess the students' achievement by identifying misconception and missing concepts. 4.Evaluation Students' achievement can be tested or examined by concept mapping.

114. Use of Concept Maps by Students Handy way to take notes during lecture. Aids group brainstorming. Providing graphics for your presentations and term papers A way to outline your term papers and presentations. Refine your creative and critical thinking Practical applications in your courses: http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/ACES100/Mind/CMap.htmlPractical applications in your courses: http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/ACES100/Mind/CMap.html

115. Critical Questions What is the central word, concept, research question or problem around which to build the map? What are the concepts, items, descriptive words or telling questions that you can associate with the concept, topic, research question or problem?

116. Construction Steps Select Rank Cluster Arrange Link and add proposition Select Focus on a theme and then identify related key words or phrases. Rank Rank the concepts (key words) from the most abstract and inclusive to the most concrete and specific. Cluster Cluster concepts that function at similar level of abstraction and those that interrelate closely. Arrange Arrange concepts in to a diagrammatic representation. Link and add proposition Link concepts with linking lines and label each line with a proposition. http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~johnson/misconceptions/concept_map/cmapguid.htmlSelect Focus on a theme and then identify related key words or phrases. Rank Rank the concepts (key words) from the most abstract and inclusive to the most concrete and specific. Cluster Cluster concepts that function at similar level of abstraction and those that interrelate closely. Arrange Arrange concepts in to a diagrammatic representation. Link and add proposition Link concepts with linking lines and label each line with a proposition. http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~johnson/misconceptions/concept_map/cmapguid.html

117. Suggestions Use a top down approach Use different colors and shapes for nodes & links to identify different types of information. Use different colored nodes to identify prior and new information. Use a top down approach, working from general to specific or use a free association approach by brainstorming nodes and then develop links and relationships. Use different colors and shapes for nodes & links to identify different types of information. Use different colored nodes to identify prior and new information . Use a cloud node to identify a question. Gather information to a question in the question node. The concept map construction process requires one to think in multiple directions and to switch back and forth between different levels of abstraction. In attempting to identify the key and associated concepts of a particular topic or sub-topic, one will usually acquire a deeper understanding of the topic and clarification of any prior misconceptions. Use a top down approach, working from general to specific or use a free association approach by brainstorming nodes and then develop links and relationships. Use different colors and shapes for nodes & links to identify different types of information. Use different colored nodes to identify prior and new information . Use a cloud node to identify a question. Gather information to a question in the question node. The concept map construction process requires one to think in multiple directions and to switch back and forth between different levels of abstraction. In attempting to identify the key and associated concepts of a particular topic or sub-topic, one will usually acquire a deeper understanding of the topic and clarification of any prior misconceptions.

118. Concept Map Sample

119. Using Rubrics

120. What is a Rubric? A rubric is a set of criteria, expressed as a scale, used to assess levels of student performance A rubric is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a student's performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. A rubric is an authentic assessment tool used to measure students' work. Authentic assessment is used to evaluate students' work by measuring the product according to real-life criteria. The same criteria used to judge a published author would be used to evaluate students' writing. Although the same criteria are considered, expectations vary according to one's level of expertise. The performance level of a novice is expected be lower than that of an expert and would be reflected in different standards. For example, in evaluating a story, a first-grade author may not be expected to write a coherent paragraph to earn a high evaluation. A tenth grader would need to write coherent paragraphs in order to earn high marks. A rubric is a working guide for students and teachers, usually handed out before the assignment begins in order to get students to think about the criteria on which their work will be judged. A rubric enhances the quality of direct instruction. A rubric is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a student's performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. A rubric is an authentic assessment tool used to measure students' work. Authentic assessment is used to evaluate students' work by measuring the product according to real-life criteria. The same criteria used to judge a published author would be used to evaluate students' writing. Although the same criteria are considered, expectations vary according to one's level of expertise. The performance level of a novice is expected be lower than that of an expert and would be reflected in different standards. For example, in evaluating a story, a first-grade author may not be expected to write a coherent paragraph to earn a high evaluation. A tenth grader would need to write coherent paragraphs in order to earn high marks. A rubric is a working guide for students and teachers, usually handed out before the assignment begins in order to get students to think about the criteria on which their work will be judged. A rubric enhances the quality of direct instruction.

121. Effective Rubrics Are used in conjunction with models or of student work Express precise criteria and descriptors Are student friendly Can be changed to support the needs of your students and the lesson Models should be developmentally appropriate yet vary in meeting criteria Students learn to use the rubric to analyze the models, and therefore become even clearer about the requirements of the task before they begin work. Rubrics can be created for any content area including math, science, history, writing, foreign languages, drama, art, music, and even cooking! Once developed, they can be modified easily for various grade levels Models should be developmentally appropriate yet vary in meeting criteria Students learn to use the rubric to analyze the models, and therefore become even clearer about the requirements of the task before they begin work. Rubrics can be created for any content area including math, science, history, writing, foreign languages, drama, art, music, and even cooking! Once developed, they can be modified easily for various grade levels

122. Why Use Rubrics? Rubrics improve students’ end product and therefore increases learning Teachers know what makes a good final product and why Many experts believe that rubrics improve students' end products and therefore increase learning. When teachers evaluate papers or projects, they know implicitly what makes a good final product and why. When students receive rubrics beforehand, they understand how they will be evaluated and can prepare accordingly. Developing a grid and making it available as a tool for students' use will provide the scaffolding necessary to improve the quality of their work and increase their knowledge. In brief: Prepare rubrics as guides students can use to build on current knowledge. Consider rubrics as part of your planning time, not as an additional time commitment to your preparation. Many experts believe that rubrics improve students' end products and therefore increase learning. When teachers evaluate papers or projects, they know implicitly what makes a good final product and why. When students receive rubrics beforehand, they understand how they will be evaluated and can prepare accordingly. Developing a grid and making it available as a tool for students' use will provide the scaffolding necessary to improve the quality of their work and increase their knowledge. In brief: Prepare rubrics as guides students can use to build on current knowledge. Consider rubrics as part of your planning time, not as an additional time commitment to your preparation.

123. Rubric Advantages Teachers can increase the quality of their direct instruction by providing focus, emphasis, and attention to particular details as a model for students. Students have explicit guidelines regarding teacher expectations. Teachers can reuse rubrics for various activities Teaching Focus Helps determine teaching effectiveness-what approaches and methods work Helps to determine whether the program is achieving desired goals Is a tool for communicating to others Removes subjectivity Creates professional consistence Also: Creates benchmarks against which to measure and document student progressTeaching Focus Helps determine teaching effectiveness-what approaches and methods work Helps to determine whether the program is achieving desired goals Is a tool for communicating to others Removes subjectivity Creates professional consistence Also: Creates benchmarks against which to measure and document student progress

124. Established Rubrics Reviewing, reconceptualizing, and revisiting the same concepts from different angles improves understanding of the lesson for students. May be slightly modified and applied to many activities Once a rubric is created, it can be used for a variety of activities. A rubric can be used or slightly modified and applied to many activities. For example, the standards for excellence in a writing rubric remain constant throughout the school year; what does change is students' competence and your teaching strategy. Because the essentials remain constant, it is not necessary to create a completely new rubric for every activity. http://www.teachervision.fen.com/page/4522.htmlOnce a rubric is created, it can be used for a variety of activities. A rubric can be used or slightly modified and applied to many activities. For example, the standards for excellence in a writing rubric remain constant throughout the school year; what does change is students' competence and your teaching strategy. Because the essentials remain constant, it is not necessary to create a completely new rubric for every activity. http://www.teachervision.fen.com/page/4522.html

125. Analytic vs. Holistic Rubrics Analytic rubrics identify and assess components of a finished product Holistic rubrics assess student work as a whole Analytic Focus is to break assignments or scores down into separate components for grading Holistic Focus it to provide overall evaluation guidelines that clarify how grades relate to performance/achievement, such as course gradesAnalytic Focus is to break assignments or scores down into separate components for grading Holistic Focus it to provide overall evaluation guidelines that clarify how grades relate to performance/achievement, such as course grades

126. What We Are Assessing Previously Word documents Excel Publisher Posters Today Web pages Video clips Visual diagrams PowerPoint Presentations Email discussions Take a poll on each item in today for discussionTake a poll on each item in today for discussion

127. Design Your Own Gather student work samples Sort into 3-4 groups Record your own descriptive statements Categorize into critical performance elements 4. Ie. Exemplary, proficient, basic, novice4. Ie. Exemplary, proficient, basic, novice

128. Design Your Own Write operational definitions for each element Select the “best match” for each level Repeat steps…refine

129. Reminders: Determine learning outcomes Keep it short & simple (4-15 items) Each rubric item should focus on a different skill Focus on how students develop and express their learning You’ll see an example of this shortly Did it work? Was it detailed enough?You’ll see an example of this shortly Did it work? Was it detailed enough?

130. More Reminders: Evaluate only measurable criteria, clarifying value of options Ideally, the entire rubric should fit on one sheet of paper Re-evaluate the rubric after use

131. The Cookie Rubric Pass out cookiesPass out cookies

132. The Cookie Task: Make a delicious chocolate chip cookie Criteria: Texture Taste, Number of chips Flavor

133. Range of Performance Delicious (14-16 pts) Good (11-13 pts) Needs Improvement ( 8-10 pts) Poor ( 0- 7 pts)

134. Delicious Chocolate chip in every bite Chewy Golden brown Home-baked taste Rich, creamy, high-fat flavor

135. Good Chocolate chips in about 75 percent of the bites taken Chewy in the middle, but crispy on the edges Too brown or too light Quality store-bought taste Medium fat content

136. Needs Improvement Chocolate chips in 50% of the bites taken Too crunchy or chewy Either dark brown or too light Tasteless Low-fat content

137. Poor Too few or too many chocolate chips Texture resembles a dog biscuit Burned Store-bought flavor– stale, hard, chalky Non-fat contents

138. Assess the Cookie By Overall Score Delicious Good Needs Improvement Poor By Criteria Number of Chips Texture Color Taste Flavor By Overall Score Delicious Good TASTY Needs Improvement EDIBLE Poor NOT YET EDIBLE By Overall Score Delicious Good TASTY Needs Improvement EDIBLE Poor NOT YET EDIBLE

139. RubricRubric

140. Helpful Sources Rubistar-rubric building template http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index/shtml Teach-nology rubric builder http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/ Rubric Template http://edweb.sdsu.edu/triton/july/rubrics/Rubric_Template.html Rubrics 4 Teachers http://www.theeducatorsnetwork.com/main/rubricfeature.htm The Rubric Bank http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us/Assessments/Ideas_and_Rubrics/Rubric_Bank/rubric_bank.html References: http://info.umuc.edu/de/ezine/features/sept_oct_2004/rubrics.htm http://edweb.sdsu.edu/triton/july/rubricsRubric_Template.html http://www.agron.iastate.edu/assessment/ASAPosterRubrics.pdf http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us?Assessments/Ideas_and_Rubrics/ideas_and_rubrics.html References: http://info.umuc.edu/de/ezine/features/sept_oct_2004/rubrics.htm http://edweb.sdsu.edu/triton/july/rubricsRubric_Template.html http://www.agron.iastate.edu/assessment/ASAPosterRubrics.pdf http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us?Assessments/Ideas_and_Rubrics/ideas_and_rubrics.html

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