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The JEDI - Training. A Playful Evaluation of Interactive Head-Mounted Augmented Reality Display Systems . Christopher S. Oe zbek, Björn Giesler and Rüdiger Dillmann Institute for Computer Design and Fault Tolerance (IRF)

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the jedi training

The JEDI - Training

A Playful Evaluation of

Interactive Head-Mounted

Augmented Reality Display Systems

Christopher S. Oezbek, Björn Giesler and Rüdiger Dillmann

Institute for Computer Design and Fault Tolerance (IRF)

Chair for Industrial Applications of Informatics and Microsystems (IAIM)

Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany

Electronic Imaging Conference

Thursday, 22nd January 2004

San Jose, CA

background 1 2
Background (1/2)

Augmented Reality (AR) is the concept of adding 3D virtual elements to the real world.

This is in contrast to simulation or virtual environments where a real world does not exist. AR therefore requires:

  • Tracking of the position of real-world elements of interest
  • Registration of the user in relation to the virtual world

Furthermore, interactive AR does require easy and precise control of a set of virtual elements by the potential user. Some definitions of AR require interactivity as a mandatory characteristic.

background 2 2
Background (2/2)

Although other senses like hearing, touching, and even smelling are included in this definition, the main focus of AR research is on the visual sense so far.

Besides the limited exception of projection display systems, visual augmentation is most commonly achieved by using head-mounted displays.

Two types of head-mounted displays have been realized and are available:

  • Optical See Through (OST)
  • Video See Through (VST)
optical see through ost
Optical See Through (OST)

Using a partially transmissive mirror, the real world image is combined with virtual pictures generated in the HMD.

Since no input is generated by the head-mounted display, head tracking needs to be done using an extra device.

Advantages:

  • Real-world directly visible (Resolution, delay, eye offset)
  • Safety

System used in Jedi-Training:

  • Sony Glasstron
  • Stationary NDI Polaris infrared tracker
video see through vst
Video See Through (VST)

Video cameras capture the real world. Those pictures are combined with virtual elements and displayed to the user.

Since input is gathered from the surrounding world, no special tracking device needs to be attached.

Advantages:

  • Better composition strategies (opacity, delay)
  • No registration required

System used in Jedi-Training:

  • Trivisio ARVision 3D-HMD
  • ARtoolkit image based marker tracking
goals of the experiment
Goals of the Experiment

Compare both systems with respect to:

  • Performance and Effectiveness
  • 3D feeling
  • Tracking
  • Comfort
  • Acceptance
  • Effect of preexisting knowledge
methods 1 2
Methods (1/2)
  • To achieve the named goals, a game was introduced resembling the laser light saber training from the film Star Wars.
  • A small spherical remote robot was displayed in the user´s field of view. Moving randomly inside a predefined area, the drone fired laser rays against the player who had to fend them off with his light saber.
  • For each succesful defend the player scored one point and the session ended after five unsuccessful defends.
methods 2 2
Methods (2/2)

Players were divided into two groups:

  • Group A started with OST and after three sessions

crossed over to the VST system for another three sessions.

  • Group B started with VST and moved on to OST

After each run each player was asked to enter his name using a conventional keyboard and scores were recorded.

A questionnaire on a scale of 0 - 10 was deployed afterwards to gather subjective data.

study population
Study Population
  • 31 CS students from University Karlsruhe
  • 27 male, 4 female
  • 13 participants wore spectacles
  • 15 participants started with OST
  • 16 participants started with VST
study population1

With OST-System Starting Group; n=15

With VST-System Starting Group; n=16

Study Population

N: 31

n.s.

n.s.

n.s.

n.s.

results

Scores with OST-System

Scores with VST-System

Results

N: 31

n.s.

p<0,05

p<0,05

n.s.

Initial 3 games

The learning periode

results1

OST-System

VST-System

Group A

Results

N: 31

Group B

p<0.05

Score

p<0.01

p<0.01

n.s.

p<0.05

n.s.

Initial 3 runs

Learning effect

Final 3 games

Experienced level

results2

OST-System

VST-System

Results

N: 31

p<0,05

n.s.

p<0,05

p<0,05

p<0,05

results3

OST-System

VST-System

Results

N: 31

p<0,05

p<0,05

p<0,05

p<0,05

p<0,05

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The optical see through system achieves higher scores, is more comfortable to use, and more accepted than the VST solution.
  • No measure of preexisting knowledge/skill correlated with score results.
  • Image based tracking via the ARtoolkit should not be used for object tracking.
  • High framerates and low delay are the most pressing issues for VST solutions.
  • With forthcoming improvements comparative testing will become more neccesary.
  • From the perspective of today both systems have the potential to become the gold standard.
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