An experience of the language observatory project
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

An Experience of the Language Observatory Project PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 63 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

An Experience of the Language Observatory Project. Yoshiki Mikami Leader, Language Observatory Project Japan Science & Technology Agency Workshop on “Recent Experiences on Measuring Languages on the Cyberspace” UNESCO, Paris, February 22, 2007. Outlines. Global Digital Divide

Download Presentation

An Experience of the Language Observatory Project

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


An experience of the language observatory project

An Experience of the Language Observatory Project

Yoshiki Mikami

Leader, Language Observatory Project

Japan Science & Technology Agency

Workshop on

“Recent Experiences on Measuring Languages

on the Cyberspace”

UNESCO, Paris, February 22, 2007


Outlines

Outlines

  • Global Digital Divide

  • Language Observatory: How It Functions?

  • Major Findings

    3.1 Survey Snapshots, Asia and Africa

    3.2 Technical aspect of the Divide

    3.3 Social aspect of the Divide

    3.4 Several non-linguistic aspects

  • Future Agenda

    Regarding Measurement

    From Measurement to Empowerment


1 global digital divide income telephony

1. Global Digital DivideIncome, telephony

2004

1999

Source: ITU Statistics


The degree of inequality telephony income internet

The Degree of Inequality Telephony<Income<Internet

Gini-coefficient: Telephony 0.51 < GDP 0.73 < Internet 0.91


Unesco recommendation

UNESCO Recommendation

Recommendation concerning the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace, October 2003

[PREAMBLE]

  • Noting that linguistic diversity in the global information networks and universal access to information in cyberspace are at the core of contemporary debates and can be a determining factor in the development of a knowledge-based society,


Linguistic activities moving onto the web

Linguistic activities moving onto the Web


2 language observatory how it functions

2. Language ObservatoryHow It Functions?

Internet

http://gii.nagaokaut.ac.jp/gii/papers.php

<HTML><HEAD>

<TITLE>Language Observatory</TITLE>

<META http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">

</HEAD>

<BODY>

<A href="http://www.language-observatory.org"><IMG height=137 alt="logo" src = “LO.files/logo.gif" width=155></A>

<H2>About us</H2>

<P>Astronomical observatory catches the light from stars, likewise.................

Crawler

[ UbiCrawler ]

pages

Language

Identifier [ LI ]

Tag Analysis

Analysis on

Digital

Language

Divide

Language

Resources

Contant nalysis


Unit of identification lse l anguage s cript e ncoding

Unit of Identification = LSE Language+Script+Encoding

Difference of language

Differnce of Encoding

Difference of Script


The first workshop on the imld 2004

The First Workshopon the IMLD, 2004

UNESCO reported the launch of the project

http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=14480&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html


Milestones 2003 to 2007

Milestones, 2003 to 2007


Expert collaboration case of african survey

Expert CollaborationCase of African Survey

June 26-28, 2006 at Bamako, Mali

ACALAN

Mali

Algeria

Burkina Faso

Ethiopia

Kenya

Malawi

Nigeria

Tunisia

CNRS, France


Researchers network over 35 countries

Researchers NetworkOver 35 countries

Experts’ contribution is essential in collection of local

coding text, seed URLs, and verification of LI results


3 1 survey snapshot languages on the net asia

3.1 Survey SnapshotLanguages on the net, Asia

as of June 2006


3 1 survey snapshot cont languages on the net africa

3.1 Survey Snapshot (cont.)Languages on the net, Africa

as of October 2006


3 2 technical aspect localization problem

3.2 Technical AspectLocalization Problem

“Language Localization” has been the key obstacle to the use of new information technologies since type printing age.


A jesuit friar s letter 1608 six hundred versus 24

A Jesuit Friar’s letter, 1608Six hundred versus 24

"Before I end this letter I wish to bring before Your Paternity's mind the fact that for many years I very strongly desired to see in this Province some books printed in the language and alphabet of the land, as there are in Malabar with great benefit for that Christian community. And this could not be achieved for two reasons; the first because it looked impossible to cast so many moulds amounting to six hundred, whilst as our twenty-four in Europe."

Doctrina Christam in Tamil, 1578

source: Priolkar, The Printing Press in India,Bombay, 1958


Doctrina in tagalog 1593 the script was finally lost

Doctrina in Tagalog, 1593The script was finally lost

Philippines postal stamp issued in 1995

“Doctrina Christiana”, bi-lingual version, printed in Tagalog by Tagalog script / in Tagalog by Latin script / in Spanish by Latin script.


Encoding chaos leads to delay of localization

Encoding Chaos leads todelay of localization

note: Local proprietary encodings are shown in this table by names of font (families). as of June 2006


Unavailability of search engines another problem

Unavailability of search engines :another problem

Google

As of June 2006


Technical aspect of the digital language divide

differentiation strategy to enclose customers

local

media

local

IT firms

encoding chaos

delay in localization

non-availability of search

engines (SEs)

gov.

users

lack of leadership in standardization

Technical Aspect of the Digital Language Divide

lack of standard

in typewriter keyboard

less attention from IT vendors

global

IT firms

difficulty in access to standardization process

Int’l

standard

bodies

various localization by

overseas communities


3 3 social aspect languages in multilingual society

3.3 Social Aspect: languages in multilingual society

Based on EU’s “Common European Framework of Reference for Languages” (2004)


Language plays a different role in multilingual society

Language plays a different role in multilingual society

ac.xx

educational

com.xx

occupational

gov.xx

public

others

personal

Socio-economic domains

Globallanguages

Regional languages

secondarylevel domain

Officiallanguage (s)

Minoritylanguage (s)


Specialization of language secondary domain analysis

Specialization of LanguageSecondary domain analysis

Cyprus

Turkey

Kazakhstan

Iran


Social aspect of the digital language divide

Social Aspect of the Digital Language Divide

restricted social activities

overseas community

non

availability

of SEs

local

business

global

IT firms

e-

business

local

media

users

users

media

press

gov.

primary

seondary

education

higher

education

users

gov

absence of mother language

low literacy


3 4 non linguistic aspects a network and server

3.4 Non-linguistic Aspectsa. Network and Server

  • ○rw: Rwanda

  • △ml: Mali

  • □mz: Mozambique

  • White: servers installed in the country

  • Colored: servrs installed overseas

80% of servers under African domains are located outside of the country. 60% of servers in Asian domains are also “offshore”

as of December 2005


Complaint against access a letter from namibia

Complaint against accessA letter from Namibia

I am the web master of the XXXXXXX Database. We are being severely hit by your LanguageObservatory‘s web crawler - already 37000 page hits this month. InDecember 2005 you hit us 34000 times. We are on limited bandwidth, and this puts unacceptable strain on our server. I notice that you considerone HTTP request every 5 seconds 'polite' and 'modest'. This may be true in Japan, but not in Africa - our connections are very slow and very narrow.

I would appreciate it if you could prevent your crawlers from visitingour URL again. In return, I will be happy to provide you directly with whatever statistics about our site you need for your research.

Sincerely

we carefully control data collection speed using a

set of parameters, such as revisiting interval, depth,

maximum pages per server, prohibition URL list.


B domain governance

b. Domain Governance

pages

Management of small Islands’ domains are often re-delegated to overseas web-hosting operators, who tend to admit spam, porn, etc.

population (1,000)

as of December 2005


C access regulations by the government

c. Access regulationsby the government

Countries where only state controlled TV stations available, show higher percentage of links going to global news sites abroad.


4 future agenda

4. Future Agenda

  • Regarding Measurement

    • Improvement of accuracy and coverage

    • Multi-stakeholder Collaboration

    • Global Observatories Network

  • From Measurement to Empowerment

    Goals/Targets/Indicators system which help and guide stakeholders in empowering languages


World network for linguistic diversity

World Network for Linguistic Diversity


Language empowerment mother language for creation

”Language Empowerment”Mother language for creation

localization of application SW

based on standard

local language search engines

language community

language

portal

OSS

developers

IT firms

母語情報処理技術OCR, TTS, 翻訳

promotion of NLP

OCR, TTS, MTe-dictionary, etc

media

press

mother

language

for creation

higher

education

creation of local contents

豊富な母語コンテンツ

豊富な母語コンテンツ

gov

users

electronic delivery of public services

mother language use in higher education

literacy


Millennium development goals structure

Millennium Development Goals: Structure


Thanks for your attention

Thanks for your attention

Jehan Rectus Square, Paris

photo: courtesy by Wunna Ko Ko, June 2005


  • Login