ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE FOR DRR AND SUSTAINIBILITY
Dr. A. K. SINGH
Asscosiate Professor, JTCDM, TISS and Principal Coordinator-TISS , Disaster Resilient Assam and Northeast Project
Email : [email protected]
INTRODUCTION AND SUSTAINIBILITY
India is one of the worst affected countries with respect to-
Priority 3 of Hyogo framework for Action 2005: 2015
Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters broadly
Use of knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.
This requires the collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant knowledge and information of hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities
Provide easily understandable information on disaster risks and protection options
Strengthening networks among the disaster experts, managers and planners across sectors and between regions
Promote and improve dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities and practitioners
Develop local, national, regional and international user friendly directories, inventories and national information sharing systems
Institutions dealing with urban development should provide information to the public on disaster reduction options pror to constructions, land purchase or land sale
Update and widely disseminate international standard terminology related to DRR
Promote the inclusion of DRR knowledge in relevant sections of school curricula at all levels
Use of other formal and informal channels to reach youth and children with information
Promote the integration of DRR as an intrinsic element of the UN decade for education for sustainable development
Promote the implementation of programmes and activities in schools for learning how to minimize the effects of hazards
Develop training and learning programmes in DRR targeted at specific sectors
Promote community based training initiatives, considering the role of volunteers to enhance local capacities
Ensure equal access to appropriate training and educational opportunities for women and vulnerable constituencies; promote gender and cultural sensitivities training as integral components of education and training for DRR
Role of an educational institute in local development and sustainability though DRR-A case study of TISS
Since its inception in 1936, the Vision of the TISS is to be an institution of excellence in higher education that continually responds to changing social realities through the development and application of knowledge, towards creating a people-centred, ecologically sustainable and just society that promotes and protects dignity, equality, social justice and human rights from all. The TISS works towards its vision through:
‘’We found a difference in their work and the work of many others who were earnest and had done their best, but who did not have the training to do it well. There is a difference between the trained workers and the merely enthusiastic workers’’
Pandit Nehru made these comments on the role of TISS Volunteers in the Post-Partition Refugee Camps in Kurukshetra at the Inaugural Function of the TISS Deonar Campus on October 6, 1954.
Summary table of TISS involvement in Disaster 1947:2005 many others who were earnest and had done their best, but who did not have the training to do it well. There is a difference between the trained workers and the merely enthusiastic workers’’
While TISS has time and again contributed to disaster response in India, a review of the same reveals several strengths and weaknesses, and points to the requirement for a full-fledged Centre that would consolidate the work already done, and build on existing strengths to emerge as dynamic unit of research, education and action in disaster preparedness and response in South Asia.
It is in this context that the Jamsetji Tata Centre for Disaster Management (JTCDM)was established at TISS to develop qualified, skilled and committed human resources, and to provide support in terms of research, training, networking and policy advocacy in the country. The Centre is envisaged as a nodal agency for disaster management that will function through systems that complement, supplement, and work in close coordination and collaboration with the state and other agencies dealing with disasters.
The Jamsetji Tata Centre for Disaster Management was inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, on 6 May 2006.
Disaster management as an emerging academic discipline inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, on 6 May 2006.
Disaster management in higher education: A global review inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, on 6 May 2006.
An attempt was made to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the postgraduate programmes with Disaster Management content offered by national institutes in India and universities across the world. A detailed analysis on various dimensions covered by specific courses was conducted. Some of the key questions that guided this desk top review were:
Graph depicts the key areas of expertise/specialisation within which disaster management courses at Masters level are located within different Institutes.
Priority given to these fields/areas by different institutes- Key theme/ areas in Disasters covered in University Curricula
Worldwide disaster management courses are available at the following levels:
1. Diploma level programs.
2. Undergraduate degree level programs.
3. Graduate degree level programs.
4. Certificate programs.
A more extensive global review presents the analysis of the detailed information collected on disaster management studies in various colleges and universities worldwide from 187 courses (262 including trainings in 2007). For analysis purpose fact-sheets have been prepared for each program and presented in this report. In all fourteen different aspects of disaster management are considered for the evaluation of each individual program. The evaluation has defined five levels for indicating the depth of coverage of the aspect under evaluation. These levels are as follows:
A+ : Aspect covered to advanced level
A : Aspect covered to medium level
A- : Aspect covered to basic level
N : Aspect not covered
NI : Information not available
Analysis for certificate courses following levels:
Analysis for on campus diploma courses following levels:
Analysis for diploma distance learning courses following levels:
Analysis for undergraduate on-campus courses following levels:
Analysis for undergraduate distance learning course following levels:
Analysis for graduate courses following levels:
Nature of course structure and content following levels:
A review of course content suggested that or full range of areas or topics covered within the postgraduate programme in disaster management are:
i. Theories on risk, crisis and disasters (social science perspectives)
ii. Historical aspects of disasters
iii. Introduction to Disasters
iv. Risk and vulnerability assessment
v. Organisational aspects
vi. Principles, planning and practices in disaster management
vii. Health and safety issues
viii. Economic dimensions of disaster
x. Communication (ITC, skill building etc.)
xi. Social dimensions and dynamics (Social change, conflicts, gender issues etc.)
xii. Political dimensions (Role of State, Federal government, inter-organisational and external interventions etc.)
From the above analysis, it is evident that a greater priority is given to the following dimensions
From the initial observations it appeared that certain areas require greater emphasis with respect to managing disasters in the developing world; and they need to be introduced as part of the curriculum. These are:
A curriculum, like the recipe for a dish, is first imagined as a possibility, then the subject of experiment. The recipe offered publicly is in a sense a report on the experiment. Similarly, a curriculum should be grounded in practice. It is an attempt to describe the work observed in classrooms that it is adequately communicated to teachers and others. Finally, within limits, a recipe can vary according to taste. So can a curriculum.”
Stenhouse, 1975, pp.4-5.
Postgraduate Courses in Disaster Management: A Comparison between the Developed and the Developing World
Time of start of program between the Developed and the Developing World
Target groups between the Developed and the Developing World
Situational factors considered while designing the course between the Developed and the Developing World
Taxonomy of significant learning between the Developed and the Developing World
Questions for formulating significant learning goals between the Developed and the Developing World
" A year (or more) after this course is over, we want and hope that students will ……….."
- What key information (e.g., facts, terms, formulae, concepts, principles, relationships etc.) is/are important for students to understand and remember in the future?
- What key ideas (or perspectives) are important for students to understand in this course?
- What kinds of thinking are important for students to learn?
o Critical thinking, in which students analyze and evaluate
o Creative thinking, in which students imagine and create
o Practical thinking, in which students solve problems and make decisions - What important skills do students need to gain?
- Do students need to learn how to manage complex projects?
- What connections (similarities and interactions) should students recognize and make….:
o Among ideas within this course?
o Among the information, ideas, and perspectives in this course and those in other courses or areas?
o Among material in this course and the students' own personal, social, and / or work life?
Human Dimension/Caring Goals
- What could or should students learn about themselves?
- What could or should students learn about understanding others and/or interacting with them?
- What changes/values do you hope students will adopt?
"Learning-How-to-Learn" Goals between the Developed and the Developing World
- What would you like for students to learn about:
o How to be good students in a course like this? (critical questioning) o How to learn about this particular subject?
o How to become a self-directed learner of the subject, i.e., having a learning agenda of what they need/want to learn, and a plan for learning it?
Goals Encouraging an Ideological Orientation
- What kinds of ideological orientations are important o Developing a strong value base
o Developing an appreciation of ethics and ethical practices
o Developing an understanding of 'praxis' and its significance
Leaning activities for active learing between the Developed and the Developing World
Core objectives of JTCDM between the Developed and the Developing World
The external side empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
Human Ecology Perspectives
Political Economy Approaches
THE DOUBLE STRUCTURE OF VULNERABILITY
Crisis & Conflict Theory
The internal side
Models of Access to Assets
Action Theory Approaches
Key Spheres of the Concept of Vulnerability empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
Multi-dimensional Vulnerability, encompassing physical, social, economic, environmental & institutional features
Vulnerability as a multiple structure, susceptibility, coping capacity, exposure, adaptive capacity
Vulnerability as a dualistic approach of susceptibility & coping capacity
Vulnerability as the likelihood to experience harm (human centered)
Vulnerability as an internal risk factor (intrinsic factor)
Widening of the Concept
External Drivers empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development. (Climate Change, Innovations, Globalisation)
Land Use Changes
OPPORTUNITY AXIS (Probability)
REALITY AXIS (Certainty)
Flood Preparedness, Dykes, Reservoirs
Evacuation, Relief, Early Warning
NATURAL EVENTS SPHERE
The Social Causation of Disasters empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
Natural Environment 1
Spatially varied, with unequal distribution of opportunities & hazards 2
Opportunities, locations & resources for human activities, e.g. agricultural land, water minerals, energy sources, sites for construction, places to live & work 3
Hazards affecting human activities e.g. floods, drought, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, diseases 4
Social processes determine unequal access to opportunities, and unequal exposure to hazards 5
Class – gender – ethnicity – age group – disability – immigration status 6
Social system & power relations 7
Political & economic systems at national & international scales 8
THE PROGRESSION OF VULNERABILITY empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
in public life
R = H X V
The trigger event empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
Time / Space
Nature of Hazard
First round of impacts on livelihood
adaptation, intervention etc
+ dynamic impacts
To the next disaster?
Or action for
4 Structures of domination empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
1 Social Relations
2b Their resources
5 Choices of Household
9 Outcome of
7 Household Budget
Births, deaths & demographic changes in time period
Objective of Coping Strategies empirical or action-oriented research on disasters, vulnerability and development.
The Jamsetji Tata Centre for Disaster Management, TISS -Major Activities