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Medfly ( Ceratitis capitata ) Biology and control Spain PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Medfly ( Ceratitis capitata ) Biology and control Spain. MODULE C16. Index. Taxonomy 2. Importance as pests 3. Distribution 4. Life cycle 5. Monitoring 6. Control. Taxonomy. Order Diptera. Family Tephritidae Ceratitis capitata Bactrocera oleae

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Medfly ( Ceratitis capitata ) Biology and control Spain

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Medfly (Ceratitis capitata) Biology and control

Spain

MODULE C16


Index

  • Taxonomy

  • 2. Importance as pests

  • 3. Distribution

  • 4. Life cycle

  • 5. Monitoring

  • 6. Control


Taxonomy

Order Diptera. Family Tephritidae

Ceratitis capitata

Bactrocera oleae

Rhagoletis cerasi


Latin name

Common name

Distri-bution

Host species

Bactrocera oleae

Olive fruit fly

Mediterra-nean region

Olive

Ceratitis capitata

Mediterranean fruit fly

Mediterra-nean region

More than 250

Rhagoletis cerasi

European cherry fruit fly

Central. Mediterra-nean region

Cherry

Most important species in Europe


Importance as pests

  • Attack high value crops (fruit crops)

  • Direct injury to the fruits

  • Fruit about to ripen

  • Larvae live inside the fruit

  • Introduced pests in many regions

  • (by man)

  • Quarantine species


Distribution

http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/muller/ (2003)


Life cycle 1: Overwintering

Polyphagous and multivoltine species,

whose development is mainly driven by

temperature

No evidence of diapause

Overwinters

in the ground

as pupa

within a

puparium


Life cycle 2: Adult emergence


Life cycle 3: Adults

male seta

female ovipositor


Life cycle 4: Adult emergence and longevity

  • Peak adult emergence takes place in

  • the early morning

  • Adults need food: honeydew, nitrogen

  • sources

  • The post-emergence pre-maturation

  • period of the females is short: 2 –3 days

  • Adult survival in the field doest not

  • exceed probably 2 – 3 months


Life cycle 5: Adult dispersion

  • The adults do not migrate readily after

  • emergence

  • Dispersion distances by flight depends

  • on fruit availability

    • Few hundreds meters per week

    • when available

    • Long distances (both mature and

    • immature females) when not available


Life cycle 6: Oviposition

  • Femalesneed T > 16ºC

  • 1 – 10 eggs / oviposition hole

  • 300 eggs (as many as 800) during lifetime

  • Eggs continuously

  • produced

  • Under the skin of

  • fruit which is just

  • beginning to ripen

  • Several females

  • can lay eggs on the

  • same fruit

  • Oviposition hole

  • difficult to detect

female

ovipositor


Life cycle 7: Egg, larva and damage


Monitoring 1: Summary of methods

1.Trap types

() McPhail

() Tephri Trap

2. Lure types

() Liquid: Trimedlure

() Solid:trimetilamine, putrescine &

ammonium acetate

() Plant volatiles

3. Economic threshold

() 1 adult per trap per day

4. Fruit sampling


Monitoring 2: Tephri traps


Monitoring 3: an example

female

male

No. catches / day

trimetilamine, putrescine & ammonium acetate


Control 1: chemical control

  • Chemical control

    • Few insecticides available (OPs, pyrethroids,

    • spinosad), even less in Integrated Fruit Production

    • Safe to harvest intervals

    • Full cover sprays

    • Aerial treatments (against IFP concept)

    • Bait sprays

  • Mass trapping

  • Attract and sterilize

  • Sterile Insect Technique

    • AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT


Control 2: mass trapping

  • Based on the use of the same traps and lures than

  • for monitoring

  • 50 – 80 traps / ha distributed across the orchard

  • Traps placed 4 – 6 weeks before harvest

  • Traps may be distributed in all the orchard, if it is small,

  • or only in its perimeter, if it is big


Control 3: attract and kill

  • Plant extracts + hydrolyzed protein+

  • insecticide

  • 400 units / ha

  • Units placed 4 – 6 weeks before harvest

  • 4 months of duration


Control 4: attract and sterilize

  • Attractants + phagostimulants +lufenuron

  • 24 units/ ha

  • 1,5 m high, south side, before 1st generation

  • Placed only once


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