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Medfly ( Ceratitis capitata ) Biology and control Spain. MODULE C16. Index. Taxonomy 2. Importance as pests 3. Distribution 4. Life cycle 5. Monitoring 6. Control. Taxonomy. Order Diptera. Family Tephritidae Ceratitis capitata Bactrocera oleae

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Medfly ( Ceratitis capitata ) Biology and control Spain

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Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Medfly (Ceratitis capitata) Biology and control

Spain

MODULE C16


Index

Index

  • Taxonomy

  • 2. Importance as pests

  • 3. Distribution

  • 4. Life cycle

  • 5. Monitoring

  • 6. Control


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Taxonomy

Order Diptera. Family Tephritidae

Ceratitis capitata

Bactrocera oleae

Rhagoletis cerasi


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Latin name

Common name

Distri-bution

Host species

Bactrocera oleae

Olive fruit fly

Mediterra-nean region

Olive

Ceratitis capitata

Mediterranean fruit fly

Mediterra-nean region

More than 250

Rhagoletis cerasi

European cherry fruit fly

Central. Mediterra-nean region

Cherry

Most important species in Europe


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Importance as pests

  • Attack high value crops (fruit crops)

  • Direct injury to the fruits

  • Fruit about to ripen

  • Larvae live inside the fruit

  • Introduced pests in many regions

  • (by man)

  • Quarantine species


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Distribution

http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/muller/ (2003)


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 1: Overwintering

Polyphagous and multivoltine species,

whose development is mainly driven by

temperature

No evidence of diapause

Overwinters

in the ground

as pupa

within a

puparium


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 2: Adult emergence


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 3: Adults

male seta

female ovipositor


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 4: Adult emergence and longevity

  • Peak adult emergence takes place in

  • the early morning

  • Adults need food: honeydew, nitrogen

  • sources

  • The post-emergence pre-maturation

  • period of the females is short: 2 –3 days

  • Adult survival in the field doest not

  • exceed probably 2 – 3 months


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 5: Adult dispersion

  • The adults do not migrate readily after

  • emergence

  • Dispersion distances by flight depends

  • on fruit availability

    • Few hundreds meters per week

    • when available

    • Long distances (both mature and

    • immature females) when not available


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 6: Oviposition

  • Femalesneed T > 16ºC

  • 1 – 10 eggs / oviposition hole

  • 300 eggs (as many as 800) during lifetime

  • Eggs continuously

  • produced

  • Under the skin of

  • fruit which is just

  • beginning to ripen

  • Several females

  • can lay eggs on the

  • same fruit

  • Oviposition hole

  • difficult to detect

female

ovipositor


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Life cycle 7: Egg, larva and damage


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Monitoring 1: Summary of methods

1.Trap types

() McPhail

() Tephri Trap

2. Lure types

() Liquid: Trimedlure

() Solid:trimetilamine, putrescine &

ammonium acetate

() Plant volatiles

3. Economic threshold

() 1 adult per trap per day

4. Fruit sampling


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Monitoring 2: Tephri traps


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Monitoring 3: an example

female

male

No. catches / day

trimetilamine, putrescine & ammonium acetate


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Control 1: chemical control

  • Chemical control

    • Few insecticides available (OPs, pyrethroids,

    • spinosad), even less in Integrated Fruit Production

    • Safe to harvest intervals

    • Full cover sprays

    • Aerial treatments (against IFP concept)

    • Bait sprays

  • Mass trapping

  • Attract and sterilize

  • Sterile Insect Technique

    • AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Control 2: mass trapping

  • Based on the use of the same traps and lures than

  • for monitoring

  • 50 – 80 traps / ha distributed across the orchard

  • Traps placed 4 – 6 weeks before harvest

  • Traps may be distributed in all the orchard, if it is small,

  • or only in its perimeter, if it is big


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Control 3: attract and kill

  • Plant extracts + hydrolyzed protein+

  • insecticide

  • 400 units / ha

  • Units placed 4 – 6 weeks before harvest

  • 4 months of duration


Medfly ceratitis capitata biology and control spain

Control 4: attract and sterilize

  • Attractants + phagostimulants +lufenuron

  • 24 units/ ha

  • 1,5 m high, south side, before 1st generation

  • Placed only once


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