Syllogism
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Syllogism. A chain of reasoning moving from general, universal principles to specific instances. A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion . Premise – a proposition  supporting or helping  to support  a conclusion.

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Syllogism

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Syllogism

Syllogism

A chain of reasoning moving from

general, universal principles to specific instances.

A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.

Premise –

a proposition supporting or helping to support a conclusion.


Picture of a syllogism

Picture of a syllogism

Suppose we know that all the things matching category “B” fits completely inside the larger category “A.” That’s the major premise, or the first argument. Suppose we can also prove that all things matching category “C” also fit inside the category “B.” That’s the minor premise, or the second argument. From these two statements, we can also conclude that all of “C” must fit in category “A” as well.


Structure of an argument

Structure of an Argument

Major Premise: All zebras are striped animals.

Minor Premise: No zebras are polar bears.

Conclusion: Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals.


Validity testing

Validity Testing

Major Premise: All clowns are funny individuals.

Minor Premise: Some sad people are clowns.

Conclusion: Therefore, some sad people are funny individuals.


Validity testing1

Validity Testing

Major Premise: Some sticky substances are yucky things.

Minor Premise: All taffy is a sticky substance.

Conclusion: Therefore, some taffy is a yucky thing.


Validity testing2

Validity Testing

Major Premise: All flies are winged creatures.

Minor Premise: All butterflies are winged creatures.

Conclusion: Therefore, all butterflies are flies.


Validity testing3

Validity Testing

Major Premise: Those who study rhetoric speak eloquently.

Minor Premise: AP Language and Composition students study rhetoric.

Conclusion: AP Language and Composition students speak eloquently.


Enthymeme en thuh meme

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

A shortened syllogism that serves the purpose of a more practical and expedient way to argue

An incomplete syllogism, in which one or more premises are unexpressed


Enthymeme en thuh meme1

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

Consider the following syllogism:

Major Premise: All people are mortal.

Minor Premise: Aristotle was a person.

Conclusion: Therefore, Aristotle was a mortal.

Restructured as an enthymeme:

Aristotle was mortal because he was a person.


Enthymeme en thuh meme2

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

Aristotle states that under LOGOS, or the content of the message, the two most powerful tools are the enthymeme and the example.

In an argument, the speaker or writer can leave out the universal principle typically stated in a syllogism because everyone should agree with it.

For example, everyone should agree that all people are mortal.


Enthymeme en thuh meme3

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

“It is quite recent history, Lord Randolph was Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Salisbury was Prime Minister, as he is now. And on the same issue of economy Lord Randolph Churchill went down - - forever. But wise words, Sir, stand the test of time. And his words were wise.”

- from the movie Young Winston


Enthymeme en thuh meme4

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

MAJOR PREMISE:

MINOR PREMISE:

CONCLUSION:

Which is not stated?


Enthymeme en thuh meme5

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

I wanted to serve as President because I love this country and because I love the people of this Nation.”

Jimmy Carter, 1980 Concession Address

Major Premise:

Minor Premise:

Conclusion:


Enthymeme en thuh meme6

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

Dr. Eldon Tyrell: “You were made as well as

we could make you.”

Roy Batty: “But not to last.”

Dr. Eldon Tyrell: “The light that burns twice as

bright burns half as long, and

you have burned so very,

very brightly, Roy.”


Enthymeme en thuh meme7

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

Major Premise:

Minor Premise:

Conclusion:

Which premise was not stated?


Enthymeme en thuh meme8

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

“Ladies and gentlemen, I will not divide the Democratic Party. Therefore, tomorrow morning I will write to the Chairman of the Democratic Party withdrawing my candidacy.”

Thomas F. Eagleton


Enthymeme en thuh meme9

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

Major Premise:

Minor Premise:

Conclusion:

What premise is missing?


Enthymeme en thuh meme10

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

“Now, I don’t know or have never met my candidate; and for that reason I am more apt to say something good of him than anyone else.”

-Will Rogers

Major Premise:

Minor Premise:

Conclusion:


Enthymeme en thuh meme11

ENTHYMEME (EN – thuh- meme)

“The gloves didn’t fit. If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit.”

-John Cochran,

Closing arguments of the O.J. Simpson trial

Major Premise:

Minor Premise:

Conclusion:


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