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### Causation

The Countefactual Theory

The Constant Conjunction Theory

- The Constant Conjunction Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there are event kinds F and G, such that c is an F, e is a G, and every F-event is followed by a G-event.
- Objection #1: Lucky Conjunction
- Objection #2: Epiphenomena

Counterfactuals

- The Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff, if c had not occurred, then e would not have occurred.

Counterfactuals

- The Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff, if c had not occurred, then e would not have occurred.
- Objection #1: Causes vs. Conditions
- Objection #2: Overdetermination
- Objection #3: Preemption
- Objection #4: Chancy Causation
- Objection #5: Overlapping

Preemption

- e counterfactually depends on c iff e would not have occurred in the absence of c.
- e1, e2, …, en is a chain of counterfactual dependence iff each member of the chain counterfactually depends on the previous member.
- The Revised Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there is a chain of counterfactual dependence from c to e.

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