Causation

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# Causation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Causation. The Countefactual Theory. The Constant Conjunction Theory. The Constant Conjunction Theory : Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there are event kinds F and G, such that c is an F, e is a G, and every F-event is followed by a G-event.

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### Causation

The Countefactual Theory

The Constant Conjunction Theory
• The Constant Conjunction Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there are event kinds F and G, such that c is an F, e is a G, and every F-event is followed by a G-event.
• Objection #1: Lucky Conjunction
• Objection #2: Epiphenomena
Counterfactuals
• The Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff, if c had not occurred, then e would not have occurred.
Counterfactuals
• The Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff, if c had not occurred, then e would not have occurred.
• Objection #1: Causes vs. Conditions
• Objection #2: Overdetermination
• Objection #3: Preemption
• Objection #4: Chancy Causation
• Objection #5: Overlapping
Preemption
• e counterfactually depends on c iff e would not have occurred in the absence of c.
• e1, e2, …, en is a chain of counterfactual dependence iff each member of the chain counterfactually depends on the previous member.
• The Revised Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there is a chain of counterfactual dependence from c to e.