# Causation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Causation. The Countefactual Theory. The Constant Conjunction Theory. The Constant Conjunction Theory : Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there are event kinds F and G, such that c is an F, e is a G, and every F-event is followed by a G-event.

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Causation

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## Causation

The Countefactual Theory

### The Constant Conjunction Theory

• The Constant Conjunction Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there are event kinds F and G, such that c is an F, e is a G, and every F-event is followed by a G-event.

• Objection #1: Lucky Conjunction

• Objection #2: Epiphenomena

### Counterfactuals

• The Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff, if c had not occurred, then e would not have occurred.

### Counterfactuals

• The Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff, if c had not occurred, then e would not have occurred.

• Objection #1: Causes vs. Conditions

• Objection #2: Overdetermination

• Objection #3: Preemption

• Objection #4: Chancy Causation

• Objection #5: Overlapping

### Preemption

• e counterfactually depends on c iff e would not have occurred in the absence of c.

• e1, e2, …, en is a chain of counterfactual dependence iff each member of the chain counterfactually depends on the previous member.

• The Revised Counterfactual Theory: Necessarily, for any events c and e, c is a cause of e iff there is a chain of counterfactual dependence from c to e.