曲式分析
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曲式分析. Form and Analysis 嚴瑞祥主講. Fantasia in d minor, K. 397. W. A. Mozart. Introduction. 音樂 時間的藝術 音樂的 “論述過程”中 聆聽者關聯前後的音樂事件 音樂的意義 所有部份的交互關係而產生 音樂 戲劇 ; 主角 連串個別瞬間或多或少程度不同的美  大型的結構下 每ㄧ 瞬間 意義. What is form in Music? –Wallace Berry.

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曲式分析

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曲式分析

Form and Analysis

嚴瑞祥主講


Fantasia in d minor, K. 397

W. A. Mozart


Introduction

  • 音樂 時間的藝術

    • 音樂的 “論述過程”中 聆聽者關聯前後的音樂事件

    • 音樂的意義 所有部份的交互關係而產生

    • 音樂戲劇; 主角

    • 連串個別瞬間或多或少程度不同的美 大型的結構下 每ㄧ瞬間意義


What is form in Music? –Wallace Berry

  • The sum of those qualities in a piece of music that bind together its parts and animate the whole.

  • The product of intellectual control over the musical ideas which bring a composition into existence.

  • A discipline through which the inherent power of the materials is realized and directed to an end that is convincing and seemingly inevitable.


Why Study form in Music?

  • 不僅在表象的區分作品的形式rondos, ternaries...曲式分析是所有 “音樂參與者” 極重要的經驗

  • 傳統與創新的平衡

  • 形式中 各部份的功能與需求

  • 更深度的體驗欣賞音樂

    • Response to emotional stimuli, at a primitive and innocent level, is by no means unimportant; but how much his experience deepens when he can participate intellectually as well

  • 音樂有其邏輯 理性的組織 其所有重要的細節都該被聽到且感受到


Tentative Schedule

  • 第一週 曲種Genre (型式的誤用)外型 Shape型式 Form

  • 第二週 Motive, Phrase(樂句)的和聲與旋律結構

  • 第三週 Small Forms

  • 第四週 分析大型樂段

  • 第五週 主題與變奏

  • 第六週 主題與變奏

  • 第七週 Ternary Form

  • 第八週 Rondo

  • 第九週 Binary form

  • 第十週 Sonata form

  • 第十一週 Sonata form

  • 第十二週 Further Aspects of Sonata form

  • 第十三週 Concerto

  • 第十四週 Concerto

  • 第十五週 Fugue

  • 第十六週 Fugue

  • 第十七週 特殊風格

  • 第十八週 特殊風格


Textbook

  • Green, Douglass M. Form in Tonal Music: An Introduction to Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979 (second edition), 1965 (first edition). (Sometimes confusing and unclear, but good for complete terminology.)


References

  • Berry, Wallace. Form in Music: An Examination of Traditional Techniques of Musical Structure and their Application in Historical and Contemporary Styles. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. (Well-organized and thorough)

  • Caplin, William. Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. London: Oxford University Press, 1998.

  • Kohs, Ellis B. Musical Form: Studies in Analysis and Synthesis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1976. (Very wide variety of formal considerations are discussed in depth)

  • Spencer, Peter and Peter M. Temko. A Practical Approach to the Study of Form in Music. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc., 1994. Originally published Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (Simon & Schuster), 1988. (Clear and consise. Perfect for undergraduate form classes. However, if you want thoroughness, go for Green or Kohs.)


型式 Form

  • 調性的結構

  • 即為和聲的安排

  • ∥: Ⅰ→Ⅴ:∥:Ⅴ7→Ⅰ :∥

  • 雖然兩個終止式外型幾乎完全相同, 僅音高不同, 卻有如此差異的結果, Ⅴ, Ⅰ→單一的和聲行程

    • Ⅰ Ⅰ (journey)

  • design: 2 parts

  • tonal structure, 1 harmonic movement


  • 型式 Form

    • 外型設計

    • 調性的結構

    • 連續二段體


    Phrase(樂句)的和聲結構

    • 樂句雖是音樂中很基本的單位, 但幾乎沒有精確的定義, 大致上

    • 呈現某種程度的完成感

    • 達到一個相對的repose


    Phrase(樂句)的和聲結構

    • 一般歌曲沒什麼問題.

    • 但器樂曲 Don Giovanni: Act I, Minuet 1:23

    • 4mm, 5―8mm,

    • Ⅰ Ⅴ→Ⅰ

    • 不和諧和弦比和協和弦, →更有動力的, 不休息的.


    Phrase(樂句)的和聲結構

    • 一般歌曲沒什麼問題.

    • 但器樂曲 Don Giovanni: Act I, Minuet 1:23

    • 4mm, 5―8mm,

    • Ⅰ Ⅴ→Ⅰ

    • 不和諧和弦比和協和弦, →更有動力的, 不休息的.


    Small Forms

    • Binary (二段體) 與Ternary (三段體)許多“標準的”形式, 多年來已有通用的名子. 如Binary 與 Ternary指帶有二段與三段的型式, 可說精簡而實用, 但並未特別指明是哪一類的二段體與三段體. 我們必須加入調性的結構, 與段落間連續或區格的考量來真正劃分所指“Open”開放樂段是指和聲上未完成, 聽者期待要繼續, Closed封閉樂段是指合聲上的完成.

    • 一個調性結構, 引人期待要繼續的第一部份→是種"連續型式".continuous, 若第一段屬封閉樂段, 而加填樂段(sections)即是"間段型式".


    Small Forms

    • 連續與分段

    • 獨特的型式"Unique", 少數作品, 無法以標準方式分類, 稱"Unique".

    • Continuous Form

    • 連續型的二段體, 稱為Continuous binary form, 有三種標準型: 1. Simple 2. rounded 3. balanced


    Small Form

    continuous

    • A~B Handel’s Blacksmith

    • A~BA Mozart Minuet 輪旋二段體

    • A~A’ Bach Suite

      • A  B: A  B melodically, A  B :B  A tonally

    • Bach and Handel wrote balanced binary so often as their simple binary. Scarlatti


    Small Form

    continuous

    • 何時第一段結束 如何分段

    • 外型設計

    • 何類型

      • Haydn: Symphony 101, 3rd Mov

      • Beethoven, Sonata Op. 2 No. 1Score

      • Boccherini’s Minuet

      • Schumann: Melody

      • Chopin Prelude No. 20


    Small Form

    sectional form 間格 (分段) 二段體

    • Division by double harmonic movement

    • A - B Simple Sectional Brahms’ Cradle Song

    • A - BA Rounded Sectional Binary分段輪旋二段體 Haydn: Symphony 100, 3rd Mov. Compare 101, Boccherini’s Minuet

    • A - BA

    • A ~ BA


    Small Form

    sectional form 間格 (分段) 二段體

    • Haydn: Symphony 101, 4rd Mov. Theme

    • Schumann: Album for the Young, No, 6


    Small Form

    Three- Part Form 三段體 A-B~A

    • Folksong: Drink to me only with thine Eyes

    • Statement, digression, restatement

    • The first part is harmonically closed

    • The second part by contrast is in the melody, texture, rhythm….., contrast in design.

    • Sectional

    • Compare between rounded sectional binary

    • B is strikingly contrast in relation to A


    Small Form

    Three- Part Form 三段體 A-B-A

    • Schumann: Album for the Young, No, 8

    • Statement, digression, restatement

    • The first part is harmonically closed

    • The second part by contrast is in the melody, texture, rhythm….., contrast in design.

    • Sectional

    • Compare between rounded sectional binary

    • B is strikingly contrast in relation to A


    分析大型樂段 6步驟

    • 區分樂句與終止式的位置.

      • Single, double or triple harmonic movement

      • Cadence: presence or absence any divisive conclusive cadence

    • 注意樂句旋律, 分析其反覆與變異, 類似與差異的情形.

      • Motivic melodic: restatement is a recurrence after contrast, differs from repeat

    • 綜合以上, 決定是否有可能分段.

      • Graphic A~BA, A-B

    • 決定可能終結樂段的樂句, 檢查其後的樂句, 以確定不屬同樂段.

      • Sectional, continuous, full sectional

    • 檢查樂句的和聲內容.

    • 檢查樂段是否對稱.


    主題與變奏

    • Sectional and continuous variation

    • A theme: elements

      • Handel suite No. 5

        • Key: E

        • Mode: major

        • Form: simple continuous binary

        • Length

        • Basic tonal structure

          • I V-I/ of V ::I V-I

        • Tempo

        • Melody

        • Texture: homophonic, mostly four-part chordal style


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