曲式分析
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曲式分析. Form and Analysis 嚴瑞祥主講. Fantasia in d minor, K. 397. W. A. Mozart. Introduction. 音樂 時間的藝術 音樂的 “論述過程”中 聆聽者關聯前後的音樂事件 音樂的意義 所有部份的交互關係而產生 音樂 戲劇 ; 主角 連串個別瞬間或多或少程度不同的美  大型的結構下 每ㄧ 瞬間 意義. What is form in Music? –Wallace Berry.

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曲式分析

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曲式分析

Form and Analysis

嚴瑞祥主講


Fantasia in d minor k 397

Fantasia in d minor, K. 397

W. A. Mozart


Introduction

Introduction

  • 音樂 時間的藝術

    • 音樂的 “論述過程”中 聆聽者關聯前後的音樂事件

    • 音樂的意義 所有部份的交互關係而產生

    • 音樂戲劇; 主角

    • 連串個別瞬間或多或少程度不同的美 大型的結構下 每ㄧ瞬間意義


What is form in music wallace berry

What is form in Music? –Wallace Berry

  • The sum of those qualities in a piece of music that bind together its parts and animate the whole.

  • The product of intellectual control over the musical ideas which bring a composition into existence.

  • A discipline through which the inherent power of the materials is realized and directed to an end that is convincing and seemingly inevitable.


Why study form in music

Why Study form in Music?

  • 不僅在表象的區分作品的形式rondos, ternaries...曲式分析是所有 “音樂參與者” 極重要的經驗

  • 傳統與創新的平衡

  • 形式中 各部份的功能與需求

  • 更深度的體驗欣賞音樂

    • Response to emotional stimuli, at a primitive and innocent level, is by no means unimportant; but how much his experience deepens when he can participate intellectually as well

  • 音樂有其邏輯 理性的組織 其所有重要的細節都該被聽到且感受到


Tentative schedule

Tentative Schedule

  • 第一週 曲種Genre (型式的誤用)外型 Shape型式 Form

  • 第二週 Motive, Phrase(樂句)的和聲與旋律結構

  • 第三週 Small Forms

  • 第四週 分析大型樂段

  • 第五週 主題與變奏

  • 第六週 主題與變奏

  • 第七週 Ternary Form

  • 第八週 Rondo

  • 第九週 Binary form

  • 第十週 Sonata form

  • 第十一週 Sonata form

  • 第十二週 Further Aspects of Sonata form

  • 第十三週 Concerto

  • 第十四週 Concerto

  • 第十五週 Fugue

  • 第十六週 Fugue

  • 第十七週 特殊風格

  • 第十八週 特殊風格


Textbook

Textbook

  • Green, Douglass M. Form in Tonal Music: An Introduction to Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979 (second edition), 1965 (first edition). (Sometimes confusing and unclear, but good for complete terminology.)


References

References

  • Berry, Wallace. Form in Music: An Examination of Traditional Techniques of Musical Structure and their Application in Historical and Contemporary Styles. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. (Well-organized and thorough)

  • Caplin, William. Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. London: Oxford University Press, 1998.

  • Kohs, Ellis B. Musical Form: Studies in Analysis and Synthesis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1976. (Very wide variety of formal considerations are discussed in depth)

  • Spencer, Peter and Peter M. Temko. A Practical Approach to the Study of Form in Music. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc., 1994. Originally published Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (Simon & Schuster), 1988. (Clear and consise. Perfect for undergraduate form classes. However, if you want thoroughness, go for Green or Kohs.)


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型式 Form

  • 調性的結構

  • 即為和聲的安排

  • ∥: Ⅰ→Ⅴ:∥:Ⅴ7→Ⅰ :∥

  • 雖然兩個終止式外型幾乎完全相同, 僅音高不同, 卻有如此差異的結果, Ⅴ, Ⅰ→單一的和聲行程

    • Ⅰ Ⅰ (journey)

  • design: 2 parts

  • tonal structure, 1 harmonic movement


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    型式 Form

    • 外型設計

    • 調性的結構

    • 連續二段體


    Phrase

    Phrase(樂句)的和聲結構

    • 樂句雖是音樂中很基本的單位, 但幾乎沒有精確的定義, 大致上

    • 呈現某種程度的完成感

    • 達到一個相對的repose


    Phrase1

    Phrase(樂句)的和聲結構

    • 一般歌曲沒什麼問題.

    • 但器樂曲 Don Giovanni: Act I, Minuet 1:23

    • 4mm, 5―8mm,

    • Ⅰ Ⅴ→Ⅰ

    • 不和諧和弦比和協和弦, →更有動力的, 不休息的.


    Phrase2

    Phrase(樂句)的和聲結構

    • 一般歌曲沒什麼問題.

    • 但器樂曲 Don Giovanni: Act I, Minuet 1:23

    • 4mm, 5―8mm,

    • Ⅰ Ⅴ→Ⅰ

    • 不和諧和弦比和協和弦, →更有動力的, 不休息的.


    Small forms

    Small Forms

    • Binary (二段體) 與Ternary (三段體)許多“標準的”形式, 多年來已有通用的名子. 如Binary 與 Ternary指帶有二段與三段的型式, 可說精簡而實用, 但並未特別指明是哪一類的二段體與三段體. 我們必須加入調性的結構, 與段落間連續或區格的考量來真正劃分所指“Open”開放樂段是指和聲上未完成, 聽者期待要繼續, Closed封閉樂段是指合聲上的完成.

    • 一個調性結構, 引人期待要繼續的第一部份→是種"連續型式".continuous, 若第一段屬封閉樂段, 而加填樂段(sections)即是"間段型式".


    Small forms1

    Small Forms

    • 連續與分段

    • 獨特的型式"Unique", 少數作品, 無法以標準方式分類, 稱"Unique".

    • Continuous Form

    • 連續型的二段體, 稱為Continuous binary form, 有三種標準型: 1. Simple 2. rounded 3. balanced


    Small form

    Small Form

    continuous

    • A~B Handel’s Blacksmith

    • A~BA Mozart Minuet 輪旋二段體

    • A~A’ Bach Suite

      • A  B: A  B melodically, A  B :B  A tonally

    • Bach and Handel wrote balanced binary so often as their simple binary. Scarlatti


    Small form1

    Small Form

    continuous

    • 何時第一段結束 如何分段

    • 外型設計

    • 何類型

      • Haydn: Symphony 101, 3rd Mov

      • Beethoven, Sonata Op. 2 No. 1Score

      • Boccherini’s Minuet

      • Schumann: Melody

      • Chopin Prelude No. 20


    Small form2

    Small Form

    sectional form 間格 (分段) 二段體

    • Division by double harmonic movement

    • A - B Simple Sectional Brahms’ Cradle Song

    • A - BA Rounded Sectional Binary分段輪旋二段體 Haydn: Symphony 100, 3rd Mov. Compare 101, Boccherini’s Minuet

    • A - BA

    • A ~ BA


    Small form3

    Small Form

    sectional form 間格 (分段) 二段體

    • Haydn: Symphony 101, 4rd Mov. Theme

    • Schumann: Album for the Young, No, 6


    Small form4

    Small Form

    Three- Part Form 三段體 A-B~A

    • Folksong: Drink to me only with thine Eyes

    • Statement, digression, restatement

    • The first part is harmonically closed

    • The second part by contrast is in the melody, texture, rhythm….., contrast in design.

    • Sectional

    • Compare between rounded sectional binary

    • B is strikingly contrast in relation to A


    Small form5

    Small Form

    Three- Part Form 三段體 A-B-A

    • Schumann: Album for the Young, No, 8

    • Statement, digression, restatement

    • The first part is harmonically closed

    • The second part by contrast is in the melody, texture, rhythm….., contrast in design.

    • Sectional

    • Compare between rounded sectional binary

    • B is strikingly contrast in relation to A


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    分析大型樂段 6步驟

    • 區分樂句與終止式的位置.

      • Single, double or triple harmonic movement

      • Cadence: presence or absence any divisive conclusive cadence

    • 注意樂句旋律, 分析其反覆與變異, 類似與差異的情形.

      • Motivic melodic: restatement is a recurrence after contrast, differs from repeat

    • 綜合以上, 決定是否有可能分段.

      • Graphic A~BA, A-B

    • 決定可能終結樂段的樂句, 檢查其後的樂句, 以確定不屬同樂段.

      • Sectional, continuous, full sectional

    • 檢查樂句的和聲內容.

    • 檢查樂段是否對稱.


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    主題與變奏

    • Sectional and continuous variation

    • A theme: elements

      • Handel suite No. 5

        • Key: E

        • Mode: major

        • Form: simple continuous binary

        • Length

        • Basic tonal structure

          • I V-I/ of V ::I V-I

        • Tempo

        • Melody

        • Texture: homophonic, mostly four-part chordal style


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